|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 96 – 89 million years ago|
|Length||5m / 16ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Evgeny Maleev (1952). A new ankylosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia
- Paulina-et al., (2017). Neuroanatomy of the ankylosaurid dinosaurs Tarchia teresae and Talarurus plicatospineus from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia, with comments on endocranial variability among ankylosaurs
- Jin-Young et al., (2019). Additional skulls of Talarurus plicatospineus and implications for paleobiogeography and paleoecology of armored dinosaurs.
Talarurus is pronounced “tal-a-roor-us,” and its genus name is derived from the Greek words “tálaros,” which means “basket or wicker cage”, and “oura,” which means “back or tail” i.e. wicker tail in reference to the wicker tendons that stiffened its tail and helped it become such a lethal weapon. In 1952, Russian paleontologists found and named this dinosaur.
Talarurus lived throughout the Cretaceous period and roamed Asia’s terrestrial areas, including what is now Mongolia, from the Cenomanian period to 83.6 million years ago. Talarurus was one of the breed’s earliest members, dating back about 30 million years before the K/T extinction. Talarurus is an ankylosaurid dinosaur genus. Talarurus is one of Asia’s most well-known ankylosaurs. The only type species for this genus is T. plicatospineus.
Its fossils have been discovered in areas like Dornogovi (Mongolia) and mnögovi (Mongolia). Fossils of these animals have been discovered in the Bayan Shireh formation deposits, which date back millions of years to the Late Cretaceous epoch. The dinosaur’s distribution range appears to have been limited to Asia and several individuals’ skeletons are fairly complete in the fossil record. The discovered specimen includes an incomplete skull, including the occipital region and basicranium, several vertebrae, several ribs, a scapulocoracoid, a humerus, a radius, an ulna, a nearly entire manus, a partial ilium, an ischium, a femur, a tibia, a fibula, a nearly full pes, and various armour and scutes.
The dinosaur was a large, medium-sized herbivore that grew to be up to 5 meters long. It could also weigh up to 907.2 kg, making it a hundred times larger than a porpoise. It possessed a large cranium, measuring around 24 cm long and 22cm wide.
Talarurus was depicted as a four-legged creature by palaeontologists and despite the fact that the foot was not identified during articulation, one foot is a composite, and three toes is probably a more correct number.
Talarurus wore bone armour and used the club on its tail to protect itself and at the end of the dinosaur, tail was a fused-bone club. Strong Spikes adorned its cheeks and the back of its head and images of Talarurus demonstrate that they were thought to be green or dark brown in appearance. It had a rostrum that was quite large. It had strong, short limbs that supported a broad, rounded bell and it was determined that these were females who laid eggs.
The Talarurus was a wetland creature, found in arid environments. Talarurus would have been a low-growing vegetation browser in Mongolia’s range. These were quadrupedal herbivores who ate plant materials that grew at low altitudes.
The dinosaur wore bone armor and used the club on its tail to protect itself. The most active means of defense was its tail. Strong muscles at the tail’s base would have allowed it to be spun violently at an assailant. Aggression in Talarurus dinosaurs, on the other hand, is unknown.
Mostly as a result of habitat loss About 90 million years ago, the Talarurus genus went extinct.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 121 – 99 million years ago|
|Length||7m / 23ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
Niclas et al., (2021). Postcranial osteology of the basally branching hadrosauroid dinosaur Tanius sinensis from the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Shandong, China
The name Tanius is pronounced “tahn-ee-us.” In honour of Chinese palaeontologist Tan Xichou, the name Tanius means “of Tan.” It was described and named in 1929. It inhabited the terrestrial plains of Asia throughout the late Cretaceous period, which lasted from roughly 145 to 66 million years ago. Between the Coniacian and Campanian epochs, the Tanius dinosaur roamed the earth roughly between 72 and 83 million years ago.
Hadrosaurids, or duck-billed dinosaurs, were a form of Tanius. Carl Wiman named T. sinensis as the type species in 1929. Other Tanius species have been reassigned to different genus. Paleontologists discovered the remains in April 1923 in the east of Shandong, ten kilometres southeast of Lai Yang, in the town of Ch’ing-kang-kou. Only sections of the specimen could be preserved, despite the fact that it was formerly quite complete. The holotype was discovered in the Wangshi Formation, which dates back to the Campanian period. It is made up of the flat and extended rear of the skull. Several other fragments would later be attributed to Tanius. One of the preserved vertebrae from its back appears to have a high spine.
It was a herbivorous dinosaur that moved on both two and four legs. It was a flat-headed hadrosauroid dinosaur that fell in between early iguanodonts and advanced hadrosaurs. Tanius was around 7 meters long and weighed 2,000 kilograms. Tanius sinensis was a big, scaly dinosaur with dark skin (most likely dark green, grey, or black), four flat feet with three-pointed toes apiece, and a long, thick tail that ended in a point. It had scaly spines all over its back, and its head was long and flat, and because it was a hadrosaur, its mouth was wide and flat, like a duck bill. Tanius dinosaurs were oviparous, meaning they laid eggs to breed. They were estimated to move at speeds of 30.7-38.2 mph, and they did it by hopping on all fours, running on their two hind legs, or using all four feet.
The dinosaur’s remains were discovered in Shandong Province, China’s coastline region. We can deduce from this that this dinosaur preferred warm, windy regions. Tanius dinosaurs were herbivores by nature, hence they most likely lived off of leaves, twigs, roots, and rudimentary fruits, vegetables, and seeds. Tanius, like most dinosaurs, like to live in groups. This dinosaur possesses a long, thick tail as well as spines on its back, which it must have to utilize to fight other dinosaurs. Due to extreme climatic change, the Tanius dinosaurs all perished off around 66 million years ago.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago|
|Length||10 – 12m / 33 – 39ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Maleev (1955). Giant carnivorous dinosaurs of Mongolia
- Maleev (1974). Gigantic carnosaurs of the family Tyrannosauridae
- Brusatte et al., (2020). The evolution of large-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Mesozoic in Asia.
“Tar-bow-SORE-us baa-taa” is how Tarbosaurus is pronounced. The common name is “alarming lizard,” which is derived from the Ancient Greek “tarbos,” which means fright or alarm, and “sauros,” which means lizard. In 1955, it was described and given a name. Tarbosaurus was a carnivorous dinosaur. It lived in Asia’s floodplains between 68 and 65 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous period. From 83.6 million years ago to the Maastrichtian Age, it existed.
Tarbosaurus, like other known tyrannosaurids, was a big bipedal predator and theropod. Some palaeontologists once thought it was a Tyrannosaurus species, however evidence reveals Tarbosaurus is too different from Tyrannosaurus. Only one Tarbosaurus species, T. bataar, has been officially recognised. The Mongolian word “baatar” means “hero,” and Tarbosaurus’ name “bataar” is a misspelling of that word.
At least five skulls and postcraniums from roughly 46 Tarbosaurus individuals have been discovered. In 1946, the first Tarbosaurus fossils were discovered in Mongolia’s Nemegt Formation in the Gobi Desert. A fragmentary skull and some vertebrae make up the holotype. So far, 18 Tarbosaurus foot bones and ten Tarbosaurus hand bones have been studied. Despite the fact that the creature was massive, its skeleton was surprisingly light.
The largest known individual was about 12 meters in length and weighed 5.64 tons. Tarbosaurus’ skull was tall and stiff, similar to Tyrannosaurus’, but not as wide, especially at the back. The head was supported by an S-shaped neck, while the rest of the vertebral column, including the lengthy tail, was held horizontally. Of all the dinosaurs, Tarbosaurus has the tiniest forelimbs or arms. Each hand featured two clawed digits, with an additional unclawed third metacarpal on some specimens. In contrast to the forelimbs, the three-toed hindlimbs were long and thick, supporting the body in a bipedal position. The head and body were counterbalanced by the long, weighty tail, which shifted the center of gravity to the hips. Its massive cranium was surprisingly light, with plenty of air space. Because many of its bones were hollow, they were both powerful and light. Its jaw possessed 60 strong teeth and a one-of-a-kind jaw locking mechanism. Tarbosaurus has skin imprints that demonstrate the animal had non-overlapping scales. Tarbosaurus could achieve speeds of up to 25 miles per hour.
Tarbosaurus bataar thrived in a humid floodplain with river channels running through it. It was a top-of-the-food-chain predator in this environment, most likely feeding on other huge dinosaurs. This beast was not only one of the largest known predators in what is now Mongolia, but it was also a scavenger, as its fossilised bite marks on Saurolophus remains testify.
The dinosaur was enormous and dangerous. Normally, this carnivorous dinosaur preyed on much larger dinosaurs. The dinosaur was also a formidable opponent. These characteristics are what allowed the Tarbosaurus to hunt and defeat larger prey. Tarbosaurus was one of the dinosaurs that perished during the Mesozoic Era’s Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction. During the Late Cretaceous period, 68-72 million years ago, the Tarbosaurus roamed the world for a less period of time. These are thought to be one of the last dinosaur species to have existed.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 75 – 68 million years ago|
|Length||8m / 18ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Park et al (2021). A new ankylosaurid from the Upper Cretaceous Nemegt Formation of Mongolia and implications for paleoecology of armored dinosaurs.
- Enrico de Lazaro (2021). New Species of Armored Dinosaur Discovered
- Paul and Tumanova (2017). The cranial morphology and taxonomic status of Tarchia from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia
Tarchia is pronounced “tahrk-ee ah,” which means “brainy one.” The generic name is derived from Mongolian tarkhi, which means “brain,” and Latin ia, which refers to the size of the brain. In 1977, it was given a name and a description. The Tarchia inhabited the terrestrial plains of Asia circa 75-70 million years ago, during the upper Cretaceous or late Cretaceous epoch. The dinosaur’s time span was somewhere between the late Campanian and Maastrichtian periods.
The Tarchia was Asia’s newest ankylosaurid, with two subspecies: Tarchia teresae and Tarchia gigantea. Tarchia tumanovae, a new species to the genus, was formally added in 2021. The Tarchia was the ancestor of Asian Ankylosaurid groups. Tarchia is the largest and most recent anylosaur, with a complete skeleton that includes an armored cranium. In 1971, a skull of an ankylosaurian was unearthed near Khulsan, and a further holotype was discovered in Mongolia’s Nemegt Basin’s Upper Cretaceous Barun Goyot Formation. It consisted of three parts: a roof, a braincase, and the back of the skull. A huge postcranial skeleton with three “free” tail vertebrae, twelve tail vertebrae from the “handle” of the tail club and a scute, a right humerus, and a skeleton with a skull were also discovered. Despite the discovery of two full Tarchia skulls and a complete cranial skeleton, the quantity of bones is still unknown.
A Tarchia was a quadrupedal dinosaur that walked on four legs. Tarchia is one of the largest ankylosaurids ever discovered, measuring over eight metres in length. The Tarchia was between 5.5 and 8.5 meters long and weighed between 1,364 and 1,082 kilograms. Spikes on the back and a powerful skull are among the most common features observed. It also had small legs and a large but bony tail club. They had bulbous bone growths across the tops of their heads. Tarchia had a wide cropping beak across its mouth, which allowed vast amounts of grass to be dragged into the mouth indiscriminately. The teeth demonstrate occlusion wear, which simply means that the upper and lower jaws’ teeth make regular contact. Tarchia also had a hard palate and a snout with a network of air channels that would have moistened the dry air in its environment before it reached its lungs. Tarchia could still breathe while processing food in its mouth due to the existence of the hard palate.
The Tarchia dinosaur, sometimes known as a desert animal, was thought to occupy a wide range of habitats, including open grasslands, well-watered forests, deserts, coastlines, woodlands, wetlands, and regions with abundant vegetation. The diet consisted primarily of leaves, roots, seeds, flowers, and fruits. It is known that it stayed away from its predators and in particular, is believed to have lived in a pair or a group. The Tarchia was noted for using its bony tail club to fight against predators.
Tarchia was assumed to have gone extinct around 70 million years ago, at the end of the Maastricht stage of the late Cretaceous period, due to natural disasters, habitat loss, or predatory factors.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 84 – 65 million years ago|
|Length||5m / 16.4ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Weishampel et al., (1993). Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus from the Late Cretaceous of Romania: the most basal hadrosaurid dinosaur.
- Nopcsa (1903). Telmatosaurus, new name for the dinosaur Limnosaurus.
- Dalla Vecchia (2006). Telmatosaurus and the other hadrosaurids of the Cretaceous European Archipelago.
The name Telmatosaurus means “marsh lizard” and is pronounced, “tel-ma-toh-sore-us.” The generic name was taken from the Greek word “Telma” which means marsh, a reference to hadrosaurs’ rumored swamp-dwelling habits. It was named in 1903. Telmatosaurus is a maastrichtian hadrosaur from southeast Europe. It lived during the Cretaceous epoch and was found in Europe’s swamps. From 83.5 million years ago to the Maastrichtian Age, it existed. It was one of the dinosaurs that lived on Hateg Island, a late Cretaceous island that would eventually become the Romanian Hateg Basin.
Telmatosaurus is a herbivorous basal hadrosauromorph dinosaur genus. Limnosaurus transsylvanicus was the initial name for Telmatosaurus. However, it was discovered that the genus name Limnosaurus had previously been used to name a crocodile following this naming. So the original name comes from the prevalent belief that hadrosaurids like Telmatosaurus foraged sought soft vegetation in wetlands at the time. The only type species for this genus is T. transsylvanicus.
Its fossils have been discovered in Romania, Caraș-Severin, and France’s Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. The holotype, a cranium with lower jaws, was discovered in the Haţeg Basin in a stratum of the Sânpetru Formation dating from the Maastrichtian, around 68 million years ago. Fragmentary hadrosauroid material from Spain, France, and Germany, previously attributed to Orthomerus, is now commonly attributed to Telmatosaurus, though an identity is difficult to verify; the same is true of several Romanian fragments and eggs.
Telmatosaurus, with a length of five meters and a weight of half a ton, was thought to be an example of insular dwarfism due to its modest size. It walked both bipedally and quadrupedally. The jaw of the juvenile dwarf dinosaur Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus, a species of primitive duck-billed dinosaur, has been discovered with the first-ever record of a tumorous facial growth identified in a fossil. The discovery of this benign tumor in a dinosaur is a first, as ameloblastomas were previously only known to exist in modern mammals (including humans) and reptiles. Although it seems unlikely that the tumor caused the dinosaur any pain during its early stages of development, researchers can infer from its size that it died before reaching adulthood. No one can determine its cause of death because just the two lower jaws have been preserved. It reproduced by laying eggs.
Like many other dinosaur species, it inhabited the marshy habitats of western Cretaceous Europe. As Zalmoxes ate fallen fruit from the ground, cleansing the ground and feeding, it was a herbivore that stripped freshly evolved flowers of their leaves. It also ate C3 plants, shrubs, herbaceous plants, leaves, and seeds. Due to the threat of the top dinosaur predator Balaur, a flightless bird, Telmatosaurus, like other hadrosaurs, most likely travelled in herds for safety in numbers.’ Crocodiles were likely to prey on them because of their habitat. They are thought to have gone extinct around 70-66 million years ago, based on the remnants of this species.
Tenontosaurus (ten-ONT-oh-SAWR-us) was a large ornithopod (bird-footed) dinosaur that lived in the Aptian – Albian ages during Lower Cretaceous period about 116 – 113 million years ago, in Canada, North America. Tenontosaurus lived in prehistoric swamps and is now considered to be a very primitive iguanodont.
Tenontosaurus measured 26 feet (8 metres) in length, 10 feet (3 metres) in height (in bipedal stance) and weighed around 2 tons. It was large and heavily built and quadrupedal/bipedal but spent most of its time on 4 legs, grazing but could also rear up onto its hind legs to forage in trees. Tenontosaurus had a long, broad tail which was stiffened by a network of bony tendons. Most of the tendons on ornithopod dinosaurs are strong along their backbone and hip regions. Tenontosaurus had a beak similar to other bird-footed dinosaurs.
Tenontosaurus was a herbivore and its diet would have consisted of ferns, cycads, gingkos and primitive flowering plants. Its powerful, U-shaped beak and the angled cutting surfaces of its teeth meant it was not limited to which part of the plant it consumed. Leaves, wood and even fruit may have formed part of its diet.
|Lived:||Late Triassic, 227 – 205 million years ago|
|Weight:||11kgs / 24Ibs|
|Length||2m / 6.5ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Antonio et al., (2020). Osteological redescription of the Late Triassic sauropodomorph dinosaur Thecodontosaurus antiquus based on new material from Tytherington,
- Antonio et al., (2022). Walking with early dinosaurs: appendicular myology of the Late Triassic sauropodomorph Thecodontosaurus antiquus
- Yates & Kitching (2003). The earliest known sauropod dinosaur and the first steps towards sauropod locomotion
Thecodontosaurus (socket-toothed lizard) is pronounced “theek-o-don-toh-sore-us.” The genus name is derived from the Greek words “thk” (socket) and “odous” (tooth), referring to the fact that the roots of the teeth were not fused with the jaw bone, as they are in modern lizards, but were instead positioned in distinct tooth sockets. In 1836, Thecodontosaurus became the fifth dinosaur to be named.
The herbivorous Thecodontosaurus existed from 247.2 million years ago until the Sinemurian Age and occupied the terrestrial areas of Europe during the Triassic period. This was around the time when dinosaurs and mammals were first appearing. Thecodontosaurus is a herbivorous basal sauropodomorph dinosaur genus that is extinct. Apart from the initial type species, Thecodontosaurus antiquus, the genus would gain seventeen more species. The specific epithet, “antiquus”, means “ancient” in Latin.
Thecodontosaurus fossils have been discovered in England (near Bristol), Wales, Bavaria, England, and Matabeleland North, all of which were likely dry and desert-like environments when the dinosaur existed. Its remains are known mostly from Triassic “fissure fillings” in South England. At present in total about 245 fragmentary specimens are known, representing numerous individuals. The original type specimen, of Thecodontosaurus a lower jaw, was heavily bombed by the Germans during World War II. Although the original material used to describe Thecodontosaurus has been lost, there are several more examples that have been discovered.
Thecodontosaurus was a small dinosaur with powerful back legs and smaller front legs, about 2.5 metres in length (around the size of a medium-sized dog like a Labrador with a long tail). It walked on all fours but reached up into the trees with its front legs, grabbing the stems of prehistoric trees known as cycads with its claws. Its little sharp teeth, each with a row of tiny sharp ridges running down one side, acted like blades, ripping through thick, succulent leaves. Thecodontosaurus had a short neck that supported a big head with enormous eyes. The hands and feet of this dinosaur had five digits apiece, and the hands were long and thin with an extended claw on each. The front limbs of this dinosaur were shorter than the legs, and its tail was longer than the head, neck, and body combined. It was 1.2 metres long, 30 centimetres tall, and weighed 11 kilos on average. The diminutive size has been attributed to insular dwarfism.
It was a prehistoric dinosaur that lived in the late Triassic period, when the Earth was still quite warm and much of the area was arid and desert-like. Thecodontosaurus’ leaf-shaped teeth indicate a more purely herbivorous diet. Thecodontosaurus was most likely a social animal, as evidenced by the fact that it was found in large numbers in congested areas. As a result, tiny groups of these dinosaurs would have wandered the shoreline and caves. They’d have had to be at least a little wary, as they’d only have their own speed to get away from predators.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago|
|Length||9 – 10m / 33 – 33ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Strauss (2019). 10 Facts About Therizinosaurus, the Reaping Lizard
- Osmólska & Roniewicz (1970). Deinocheiridae, a new family of theropod dinosaurs
- Barsbold (1976). Therizinosauridae, Theropoda
Therizinosaurus is pronounced, “THER-ih-zine-oh-SORE-us,” which means scythe lizard. The genus name is derived from the Greek words “therzo” (scythe, reap, or cut) and “sauros” (lizard) in allusion to the large manual unguals. It was given its name in 1954 because of its huge claws. Therizinosaurus lived in Asia during the Late Cretaceous epoch in what is now the Nemegt Formation. The vertebrate fossil assemblage discovered in the Gobi desert implies it existed between 70 million and 68 million years ago, during the early Maastrichtian era.
Therizinosaurus is a genus of herbivorous dinosaurs belonging to the therizinosaurid family. T. cheloniformis is the only recognized species of this genus at the moment. The word cheloniformis comes from the Greek “chelóni,” which means turtle, and the Latin “formis,” which refers to the remains of a turtle-like animal. For this novel and intriguing taxon, scientists created a new family: Therizinosauridae.
Therizinosaurus was one of the last and most massive members of its genus. The first fossils now attributed to Therizinosaurus were discovered in Mongolia in the late 1940s, and include several giant claws measuring up to a meter in length. However, until the early 1950s, when more fossil expeditions unearthed more bones, several more sets of claws, and parts of a forelimb and hindlimb, it was unknown to what creature these belonged. Following discoveries in northern China, paleontologists were able to piece together the animal’s general skeletal structure, revealing that it was a dinosaur rather than a turtle. Near the Xixia Basin in Nanyang, China, dinosaur researchers uncovered two 18-inch-long fossilized eggs. These are maybe the largest eggs ever discovered by any mammal. An investigation of one of these eggs in 1995 showed the bones of a tiny theropod that could have belonged to a therizinosaur.
This dinosaur had the weirdest appearance of all dinosaurs, with broad hips and a pot belly. An adult Therizinosaurus weighed around 6 tons and grew to be 9–10 meters long and 4–5 meters tall. Therizinosaurus had a long neck and a tiny head with a beaked mouth. It was bipedal and had a big, heavy, deep body, as demonstrated by the wide pelvis, 2.5 meters long ‘arms,’ and hind legs with four toes (three of which supported the animal’s weight) and small, curled claws at the tips, and the presence of three enormous claws on the animal’s front limbs was its most distinguishing trait. These claws grew to roughly a meter in length on each of its ‘hands’ three digits. The first digit had the largest claw. We don’t have any concrete proof that Therizinosaurus possessed feathers, but given its lifestyle and place in the theropod family tree, it was likely covered in feathers at some point during its life. They had a body plan that is similar to that of the modern gorillas, and because its arms were long enough to touch the ground in some positions, they may have assisted the dinosaur in rising from a prone position. Therizinosaurus may have been able to reach even higher vegetation when browsing in a bipedal stance, thanks to its short and powerful feet.
As Therizinosaurus remnants have been discovered in fluvial strata, it is thought that it preferred to feed in riparian habitats. Therizinosaurus’ feeding habits are unknown, however, it was most likely a herbivore that used its large claws to push leaves into its mouth. Therizinosaurus could sit while eating the leaves of big bushes and trees. The plant material would have been picked with its hands, and its lengthened neck would have aided this process by preventing the application of excessive force and effort.
Herizinosaurus may have migrated in herds as well. Therizinosaurus’ claws could have served a variety of purposes, including defense against predators and intraspecific warfare (such as fighting for territory) or mating.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 66 million years ago|
|Weight:||200 – 300kgs / 450 – 660Ibs|
|Length||2.5 – 4m / 8.2 – 13.1ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Peter Galton (1974). Notes on Thescelosaurus, a conservative ornithopod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of North America, with comments on ornithopod classification
- Galton (1995). The species of the basal hypsilophodontid dinosaur Thescelosaurus Gilmore from the Late Cretaceous of North America.
- Morris (1976). Hypsilophodont dinosaurs: a new species and comments on their systematics
Thescelosaurus is pronounced “thes-kel-oh-SORE-us” and translates to “wonderful lizard.” The name of the species stems from the ancient Greek words “theskelos” and “sauros,” which mean “godlike, wondrous” and “lizard,” respectively. It was given its name in 1913. It inhabited North America throughout the Cretaceous epoch and existed from 83.5 million years ago until the Maastrichtian Age. Many of its specimens are preserved and intact, indicating that it may have loved to live near waterways.
Thescelosaurus was a genus of tiny herbivorous neornithischian dinosaurs. Thescelosaurus neglectus is a type species and T. assiniboiensis and T. garbanii are two species in this genus. This dinosaur genus is a specialized basal ornithopod that was previously classified as a hypsilophodont but is now recognized as different from Hypsilophodon.
The Thescelosaurus was discovered in Wyoming in 1891 and several fragments have been uncovered over the years, but they have received little attention. In 1926, another well-preserved skeleton was discovered in Alberta, Canada, in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation. When a specimen found in 1993 in South Dakota, United States, was interpreted as containing a fossilized heart. Paleontologists have discovered 49 different specimens so far including a foot, tarsus, shin bones, fossilized thigh bone, along with five cervical (neck) and eleven dorsal (back) vertebrae.
Thescelosaurus was a bipedal herbivore with a thickly developed body. A conspicuous ridge ran the length of both maxillae and a ridge running the length of both dentaries. The deep internal to the outside surface of the skull ridges and position of the teeth is considered evidence of muscular cheeks. The cranium contained teeth in the premaxilla, or top beak, in addition to the long narrow beak. Long rod-like bones protruded from the animal’s eyes, giving it thick bony brows. Small pointed premaxillary teeth and leaf-shaped cheek teeth were found. Thescelosaurs had short, broad five-finger hands, four-toed feet with hoof-like toe tips, and a long tail braced by ossified tendons from the middle to the tip, reducing the tail’s flexibility. Thescelosaurus neglectus was a two-legged upright runner who balanced itself with its long tail. Given its relatively long arms and large hands, the animals may have been able to walk on all fours. The animal’s length is believed to be 2.5–4.0 meters, and its weight is 200–300 kg. Thescelosaurus was probably slower because of its heavier build and leg structure. It was possible that it was sexually dimorphic, with one sex being larger than the other. Juvenile remains have been discovered in a number of locations, the majority of which are based on teeth. Some scientists have proposed that Thescelosaurus provides an evolutionary link between crocodilians and birds
Thescelosaurus may have lived near rivers, streams, and other bodies of water. It thrived in a floodplain habitat with a dry subtropical climate that supported a diverse range of flora including angiosperm trees, bald cypress, ferns, and Ginkgos. The teeth and jaws show that the animal was largely herbivorous. Thescelosaurus would have preferentially browsed in the first meter or so from the ground, holding food in its mouth with cheeks while chewing. It was a member of the final dinosaurian fauna to go extinct, roughly 66 million years ago, during the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event.
Torosaurus (TOR-oh-SAWR-us) was a ‘bird-hipped’ dinosaur from the group known as the horn-faced dinosaurs or ceratopians that lived during the Late Cretaceous period, around 70 – 65 million years ago in what is now Colorado, USA, North America. The type species is T. tanneri.
Torosaurus measured 26 – 30 feet (8 – 9 metres) in length, 7 feet (2 metres) tall at the hips and weighed around 5 tons. Torosaurus possessed one of the largest skulls of any known land animal. Its enormous horned skull was 8 feet long. Torosaurus had a large, bony neck crest, a short horn on the snout, 2 long eyebrow horns and a toothless beak. The horns were possibly also used in courtship rivalry. The presence of 2 large holes in the crest led palaeontologists to believe that it was used for attracting mates and to intimidate opponents. The holes would have been covered by stretched skin creating vivid eye-spots when flushed with blood. These holes were probably filled with muscle. This would have made the massive frill lighter, but also less useful as a protection against enemies. Torosaurus was a quadrupedal dinosaur and moved around on its 4 thick, strong legs.
Torvosaurus (TOR-voh-SAWR-us) is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived in the mid-late Kimmeridgian stage in Colorado, North America and early Tithonian stage in Europe, during the Late Jurassic Period 153 – 148 million years ago. Torvosaurus is related to the earlier Megalosaurus but is seemingly more advanced.
Torvosaurus measured around 40 feet (12 metres) in length, 8 feet (2.5 metres) in height and weighed around 3 tons. It was one of the largest carnivores of its time. Torvosaurus was a bipedal dinosaur and walked on its 2 long powerful hind legs. It had strong but very short fore limbs that had large thumb claws. The head of Torvosaurus was large and elongated and was equipped with large powerful jaws containing many very sharp teeth. The tail of Torvosaurus was long, heavy and pointed and probably helped it to counterbalance. Torvosaurus was similar in appearance to Tyrannosaur Rex but had a much larger body.
Torvosaurus was a fierce carnivorous dinosaur and a predator of large herbivorous dinosaurs such as Stegosaurus and sauropods, particularly the juveniles.
Triceratops was a large and very powerful dinosaur. Triceratops walked on four very strong legs to support one of the largest heads found on any land-dwelling Dinosaur.
Triceratops had a very short tail, which wasn’t uncommon on large dinosaurs who walked on all four legs as they didn’t require the balance stabilisation.
Whilst most Dinosaurs would have been camouflaged to blend in with their surroundings, it is thought because Triceratops was so well armed and was such a large animal it didn’t need to be.
Triceratops was a Cerapod and it lived around 65-70 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period, in what today would be classed as North America. As Triceratops was a herbivore it would have lived in an area with lush vegetation in plentiful supply to keep itself fit and healthy.
Palaeontologists have discovered fossilised footprints in suggesting that Triceratops lived in herds, perhaps even gathering into a tight group. The old saying goes there’s “safety in numbers”, and scientists believe that was indeed the case for Triceratops.
When a predator such as a Tyrannosaurus Rex may have threatened their young. The Triceratops group would surround the babies or the weak member of the herd, forcing them into the middle of a circle, making an almost impenetrable fortress of spikes.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 77 million years ago|
|Weight:||40kgs / 88Ibs|
|Length10||2m / 6.5ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Paul (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World
- Evans et al., (2017). A new species of troodontid theropod from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta
- Holtz et al., (1998) Denticle Morphometrics and a Possibly Omnivorous Feeding Habit for the Theropod Dinosaur Troodon.
Troodon is also known as “wounding teeth” and is pronounced, “TROH-oh-don.” The genus name means “wounding tooth” in Greek, referring to the teeth, which were unlike those of most other theropods known at the time of discovery. It was given its name in 1856. It existed from 86.3 million years ago to the Maastrichtian Age and occupied the terrestrial lands of Asia and North America during the Cretaceous period.
Troodon is a theropod that belongs to the family Troodontidae, which includes lizard-hipped dinosaurs. It includes one species from Montana, Troodon formosus. T. formosus was one of the first dinosaurs discovered in North America, despite being mistaken for a lizard until 1877.
Its fossils have been discovered in Alaska, Heilongjiang (China), and Montana, among other places. Paleontologists have discovered five separate specimens in various locales. A single tooth was the first Troodon specimen unearthed, and this was discovered in Montana, and the new species was described in 1856 based solely on this specimen. Troodon fossils have since been discovered in the Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta, Canada, the Hell Creek Formation in Montana, the USA, and the Lance Formation in Wyoming, USA. Paleontologists also discovered multiple Troodon nests. The nests were around 1 m in diameter and held between 16 and 24 elongated eggs (some in clay nests) with embryos. 20 skeletons and a lot of teeth were also discovered.
Troodon’s greatest distinguishing characteristic was its binocular vision, which was provided by its huge, partly forward-facing eyes. Troodon’s brain was also notable, as it was substantially larger in comparison to its body size than most other dinosaur species, and as a result, paleontologists believe Troodon was a highly intelligent creature. When measured from its head to the tip of its lengthy tail, Troodon was a bipedal dinosaur, which may reach a total length of up to 8 feet. It had a slim build and weighed around 50 kg. The hollow bones of the Troodon contributed to its lightweight. It has long, slender legs with three clawed toes on each foot. Troodon’s second toe possessed a particularly massive, sickle-shaped claw. Its forelimbs terminated in gripping hands with three clawed digits, or fingers, and an opposable digit that served as a thumb. With its small bulk and powerful rear legs, it should have been able to run at a faster pace. This dinosaur possessed 35 teeth on each side of its upper and lower jaws, more than most other theropods. These teeth had serrated edges like steak knives and were triangular in appearance. Paleontologists believe Troodon laid two eggs at a time and buried them halfway in the mud. To keep the eggs warm, the dinosaur would return and sit on them.
Troodon had wider eyes, implying that it either hunted at night or required a lot of light to survive in its cold, gloomy North American environment. Troodon teeth were not like those of ordinary meat-eaters but have greater bumps running along the sides like herbivores which suggests that these dinosaurs were omnivores. Troodon may have devoured not only small animals, lizards, and baby dinosaurs, but also insects, eggs, and even plants, according to some palaeontologists.
Image source: © Anness Publishing / NHMPL source. NHM
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 99 – 84 million years ago|
|Weight:||1,000 – 4,000kg|
|Length10||6- 7m / 20 – 23ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Arbour & Currie (2015). Systematics, phylogeny and palaeobiogeography of the ankylosaurid dinosaurs.
- Tumanova (1993). A new armored dinosaur from the southeastern Gobi.
- Tumanova (2000). Armoured dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of Mongolia
Tsagantegia is also known as “Tsagan Teg” and is pronounced, “tsah-gahn-tay-gee-a.” Tsagantegia is a genus name that refers to Tsagan Teg, where it was discovered, which can be translated into English to mean “from White Mountain”. In 1993, it was formally described and it lived from 100.5 million years ago to 83.6 million years ago in the Cretaceous epoch and inhabited Asia’s deserts.
Tsagantegia is a genus of ankylosaurid thyreophoran dinosaurs of a medium size. Only the type species, T. longicranialis, is found in the genus. Longicranialis is derived from the Latin terms longus and cranium, which refers to the species’ elongated skull. Its remains have been discovered in sites like Dornogovi (Mongolia). The holotype specimen, a full skull, was discovered in Mongolia’s south-eastern Gobi Desert at the Tsagan-Teg location in the Bayan Shireh Formation. The specimen is a relatively incomplete person, with the skull compromised and no postcranial remains. Tsagantegia is distinguished from other ankylosaurs by its lengthened snout and flattened facial osteoderms, which were preserved solely in the skull.
Tsagantegia was most likely a mid-sized ankylosaur, according to comparisons with the skulls of other ankylosaurs. It was a medium to large-sized ankylosaur, measuring 6 to 7 meters in length and weighing 1 to 4 tonnes. A full skull, long and flat with little horns and several small osteoderms on the roof of the skull, was discovered. The skull is around 38 cm long and nearly 25 cm wide, with the lower jaws missing. The snout was long and flat, with a pointed rostrum (beak); each maxilla has around 18 alveoli, but no teeth. It had flat ornamentation and a more rounded, U-shaped premaxillary beak and had strong bony armor, primarily shields and nodules, as well as a bony club at the end of its tail. It has the same stunted quadrupedal body as its relatives which were large quadrupeds with powerful, short limbs. It was a plant-eating dinosaur having stegosaur-like tiny triangular teeth that were loosely set. It ate vegetation that grew to a height of one meter or less.
It also had a larger and more u-shaped beak than Shamosaurus and Gobisaurus, indicating that its extended head and wide beak allowed it to feed on a variety of plant species in its surroundings. Tsagantegia coexisted with a variety of animals from different parts of the formation, including dinosaur and non-dinosaur genera.
|Lived:||Late Cretaceous, 84 – 71 million years ago|
|Length10||8.3m / 27ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
- Prieto-Márquez & Wagner (2013). The ‘unicorn’ dinosaur that wasn’t: A new reconstruction of the crest of Tsintaosaurus and the early evolution of the Lambeosaurine crest and rostrum.
- Young (1958). The dinosaurian remains of Laiyang, Shantung
- Young and Wang (1959). On a new excavation of dinosaurs in Laiyang, Shantung
Tsintaosaurus is also known as the “Qingdao lizard” and is pronounced, “ching-dow-sore-us.” The generic name is derived from Qingdao, which was previously transliterated as “Tsintao.” It existed between 83.6 million and 72.1 million years ago and inhabited the terrestrial plains of Asia throughout the Cretaceous epoch.
Tsintaosaurus was a Chinese hadrosaurid dinosaur genus. Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus is the type species, which was first described in 1958 by a Chinese scientist where the specific name refers to the prominent crest on the snout, which is derived from the Latin word “spina” and the Greek word “rhis,” which means “nose.” Tsintaosaurus was discovered in the 1950s in the eastern Chinese province of Shangdong. Parts of the skull and body from two species were the first fossils discovered. In a stratum of the Jingangkou Formation, part of the Wangshi Group, dating from the Campanian, four separate specimens are discovered, including a holotype. It is made up of a skull and a half skeleton. Additional partial skeletons and a considerable number of disarticulated skeletal parts were discovered in the same location.
Tsintaosaurus stood 3.6 meters tall, was 10 meters long, and weighed 3,000 kilograms. The Tsintaosaurus has a number of distinguishing characteristics that set it apart from other dinosaurs, for instance a front crest formed like a unicorn on the top of its skull, which helped it attract mates. There were many bones on its lob-like crest, which also served as a passageway for the internal air route. The crest began at the tip of the snout. It walked on all fours, but bipedal movement and postures were also feasible. Their beak, according to scientists, was also a significant trait. Their nostrils appeared to be broad due of the round, thick beak. Other distinguishing traits include a fractured crest, nasal bones, and an internal air hole. Their nasal bones were thought to be nothing more than a hollow tube-like structure. Despite the fact that only a half skull was recovered, their skull roof was extremely important. The nasal passageways were looped via the larger premaxillary bones, allowing the animal to make different mating cries. To aid in swimming, it featured a big tail and paddle-like forelegs, and they were among the non-avian creatures with the best vocal abilities. The rim of these dinosaurs’ top beaks was extremely thin and fragile. Because of the crest on its skull, the Tsintaosaurus is known as the unicorn dinosaur.
Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus was a lake-dwelling dinosaur. It was a herbivorous dinosaur that ate a wide variety of edible plants. They most likely lived in herds, which require four or more groups to feel comfortable, and they weren’t particularly aggressive, but they were fiercely territorial. When it came to territory, a Tsintaosaurus might put up a battle.
|Lived:||Late Jurassic, 157 – 154 million years ago|
|Length10||7m / 23ft|
FURTHER READING AND STUDY
Tuojiangosaurus means “Tuo River lizard” and is pronounced, “oo-oh-jang-oh-sore-us.” The generic name comes from the Tuo River (jiong). It existed from 157.3 million years ago until the Tithonian Age and occupied the terrestrial parts of Asia during the Jurassic period. Tuojiangosaurus was a herbivorous stegosaurian dinosaur that lived during the Late Jurassic Period. Tuojiangosaurus multispinus, the type species of was named and published in 1977, and the particular name comes from the Latin words “multus” which means “many” and “spina” which means “spine.”
Its fossils have been discovered and retrieved in Yunnan (China), the Upper Shaximiao Formation of what is now Sichuan Province in China, and other locations. The holotype was discovered in an Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian stratum of the Upper Shaximiao Formation. It has a fairly complete skeleton, however, it is missing sections of the skull, lower jaws, tail, limbs, and was the most complete stegosaurian skeleton discovered in Asia back in 1977. More material, including juveniles, has since been referred, and this added components of the skull, particularly the braincase, and the lower jaws to the holotype. Also found were the vertebrae, vertical pairs of thick spines or plates on the back, forelimbs, hind legs, head, and pear-shaped lower jaws.
Tuojiangosaurus may grow to be up to 7 metres long, 2 metres tall, and weigh up to 4 tonnes. Tuojiangosaurus was a massive rhinoceros-sized dinosaur with thick spikes on its back, the third pair of which pointed backward after every four spikes. It possessed a pillar-like back and limbs. There were 17 pairs of thick, narrow plates in total, and the Tuojiangosaurus’ tallest pairs were at the highest part of its back. From the end of its tail developed two pairs of spikes, and it possessed a large tail and thick limbs, as well as a lengthy tail with plates. The longest plates were on the dinosaur’s hip, and they were triangular in shape. The plates themselves are too fragile and brittle to withstand a strong bite, and they aren’t well-adapted for efficient thermoregulation.
It was a quadrupedal dinosaur that ate low plants and moved slowly, and since these dinosaurs were herbivores in nature, we can presume that they lived in densely forested areas and flourished feeding in grasslands. It ate low-growing plants. It had a small head and low teeth, similar to other stegosaurs, which made it more suited for usage on softer foliage that didn’t require much tugging to extract from primary plants. Its head was close to the ground, where there was more dense foliage.
Being plant-eaters they weren’t particularly hostile. Their hefty body with narrow spikes on the hip area, but on the other hand, should not be overlooked, as this was most likely one of their protection measures. They were also territorial by nature, with their spiked tail, often known as the ‘thagomizer,’ was almost certainly used to defend Tuojiangosaurus against predators. Tuojiangosaurus’s thagomizer had spikes organised at a 45-degree angle, and evidence from other stegosaurids strongly suggests that this was an active weapon for use against attacking dinosaurs.
The word tylocephale means “swelling head” and is pronounced, “tie-loh-keff-ah-lee.” The name of the genus stems from two Greek words that mean ‘callus’ or ‘hard swelling’ and ‘head.’ Tylocephale existed between the years of 83.6 million and 72.1 million years ago, during the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. It inhabited Asia’s terrestrial plains, and some of its members may have travelled to North America.
This dinosaur belongs to the euornithopod family. Tylocephale is a genus of herbivorous pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs. T. gilmorei is the type species, which was first described in 1974. Its fossils have been discovered in areas like mnögovi (Mongolia), and is only known from a single specimen unearthed between 1965 and 1971 in the Khulsan location of the Barun Goyot Formation in Mongolia. A half or incomplete skull, including the jawbone, was discovered in the Khulsan region (mandible). Teresa and Osmólska described the type species in 1974 based on a fragmentary skull.
It was a little pachycephalosaur with only a fragmentary skull to go on. Tylocephale was believed to measure around 1.4 metres long and weighed 20 kilogrammes. This dinosaur had a tall, thick, and heavy skull, and was a herbivorous dinosaur with the largest dome of any pachycephalosaur yet discovered. Tylocephale has the highest head dome of any pachycephalosaur genera currently known, it had small, peg-like teeth with an oval cross-section were employed to grab food. It was either a bipedal dinosaur or one that stood on two legs, and to transmit effort during the lunge, it could also place its head, neck, and body in a horizontal position. This dinosaur is known to be closely related to the Prenocephale, and since they are closely related, it may have a similar appearance to the Prenocephale. It’s thought to be a cross between flat-headed genera like Homalocephale and round-topped taxa like Prenocephale.
This dinosaur was a herbivore who like to live in the woods, and because they couldn’t climb, they had to eat close to the ground. This dinosaur most likely ate plants, grasses, and other plant materials. Tylocephale most likely coexisted alongside Prenocephale, a bigger pachycephalosaur.
The Tyrannosaurus rex is probably the most famous dinosaur of them all, not only because it was portrayed in the Hollywood film Jurassic Park. Tyrannosaurus rex was the biggest meat-eating Dinosaur that ever roamed the face of the Earth. We are fascinated by this dinosaur, and we are constantly learning about the T Rex, with improved technology.
The name Tyrannosaurus originates from Greek words and means “King of the tyrant lizards”. When broken down it means “Tyrant” and “Lizard”, the Rex in Latin means “King”. Its often referred to as “T Rex” for short.
The Tyrannosaurus Rex had a massive five foot long skull and a four foot long jaw. It found its prey often by using its immensely powerful sense of smell and could detect its prey across great distances.
Research has concluded that the T Rex had the most advanced out of 21 dinosaurs that were compared. There was little that could escape this vicious dinosaur.
Tyrannosaurus Rex lived for approximately 28 years and like most human teenagers, went through a growth spurt during this period of time in its life. T Rex grew incredibly quickly and went through hundreds of pounds of meat and carcasses at a time. Fossils of Tyrannosaurus dung have shown it contained bones of its prey which evidenced what was known already about the sheer power of their bone crushing capabilities.
The T rex was one of the most vicious predators the earth has ever seen but even they were no match for the asteroid or comet that crashed into earth and killed off three quarters of all life. This event wiped out the Tyrannosaurus along with other dinosaurs and brought a sudden end to the Cretaceous period.
Last Updated on 15/07/2022 by admin