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S.

Saichania

Saichania

JaviDex, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 80 million years ago
Weight: 2,000kg
Length 6.6m / 21.6ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

Saichania, which means “beautiful,” is pronounced, “sigh-CHAN-ee-a.” The generic name, which alludes to the type specimen’s pristine condition of preservation, is translated into Mongolian as “the beautiful one.” Ankylosaurid dinosaurs of the genus Saichania were herbivores, and were  given their name and description of the type species Saichania chulsanensis in 1977. The particular name alludes to the provenance close to Chulsa. Saichania is a type of dinosaur that was once found in Mongolia and parts of China, predominantly in Asia, and lived around 90–95 million years ago, during the Campanian Late Cretaceous epoch. 

Early in the 1970s, in Mongolia, the first Saichania fossils were discovered, but only a small amount of fossil evidence has been used to describe this species, and particularly little is known about the animal’s back. The Barun Goyot Formation’s layer from the late Campanian, which is roughly 73 million years old, is where the Saichania holotype was discovered. It is made up of a skull and the front portion of the postcranial skeleton, which includes the two cervical halfrings, the left shoulder girdle, the left forelimb, the left shoulder, seven neck vertebrae, ten back vertebrae, and significant armour in the living posture. The holotype has a number of articulated parts. A fragmented skull roof and related armour are among the other specimens that were referred.

Saichania was a big ankylosaurid dinosaur with a length of 7 meters and a weight of almost 2 tons, their physical makeup resembles that of ankylosaurids. They had small forelimbs and a torso that was strongly armored, and due to its robust rump, which was formed by the ossification and fusing of its ribs, girdle, spinal column, and breast bones, Saichania is regarded as remarkable for an Ankylosaurid. The firm palate in the mouth of Saichania is an intriguing characteristic, as they could afford to spend more time chewing food with up-and-down jaw movements to enable considerably more efficient digestion. This means that Saichania would be able to breathe when its mouth was full of plants. While the hard palate would have been beneficial in an aforementioned way, it would also have made it simpler for Saichania to breathe through the snout’s extensive network of air passageways. They had spikes that were strikingly similar to those of a saltwater crocodile. One of the reasons the Saichania were unable to move quickly was due to their weight, which allowed their large carnivorous dinosaur predators to hunt them. They were protected by the armor on their back.

The habitat of this herbivorous dinosaur was the desert, however, the areas they lived in previously lacked vegetation and green food. They used to live in desert regions, scrublands, semi-arid areas, and some dry forests. In their diet, they consumed grasses, leaves, bushes, herbs, vegetable leaves, and flowers.  Around 90–100 million years ago, natural disasters or meteor strikes caused the dinosaur Saichania to be extinct.

Saltasaurus

Saltasaurus

LadyofHats, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Sauropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 70 – 65 million years ago
Weight: 6,870kg
Length 12.8m / 42ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Saltasaurus, which means “Salta lizard,” is pronounced, “salt-a-sore-us.” The province of Salta in northwest Argentina, where the first fossils were first discovered, is where the term’s generic name originates. The type species of the saltasaurid titanosauird sauropod herbivorous dinosaur genus Saltasaurus is Saltasaurus loricatus. The species name loricatus means “protected by small armored plates” in Latin. It was named and described in 1980. It inhabited South America’s terrestrial regions throughout the Cretaceous epoch 66 million years ago. Saltasaurus is one of the last sauropods, living just before the group’s extinction.

Argentina’s Saltasaurus fossils were discovered between 1975 and 1977. The holotype was discovered in a stratum of the Lecho Formation that is roughly 70 million years old and is from the early Maastrichtian era of the Upper Cretaceous. It is made up of two ilia and a sacrum, rear skull fragments, teeth, vertebrae from the neck, back, hip, and tail, fragments of the pelvis and shoulder girdle, limb bones, and armour are among the additional fossils discovered. Two adults and three adolescents or subadults, or a minimum of five individuals, are represented by these bones.

In comparison to all other dinosaurs of the time, the Saltasaurus was enormous. The Saltasaurus was thought to have a height of 3.65 m and a length of 6.1 m, and its weight is thought to be about 2540 kg. The enormous nasal holes that encompassed half of this sauropod’s face were one of its most distinctive traits and helped it to breathe easily in any climate or location. Additionally, the spikes are located on either side of its skull, where it may use them to defend itself from predators while escaping by sprinting quickly. As it was a herbivore that lived throughout southern Patagonia, Argentina, the Saltasaurus is regarded as one of the most intriguing titanosaurs. They have extremely tiny legs and long, thin, transparent tails. Along the length of its body, this sauropod had tiny bone plates implanted in its skin. It contains 320 bones in total, 40 of which cover its head and neck. Despite having lived on land in the past, the Saltasaurus could swim. These organisms most likely communicate with one another by displaying distinct body positions while standing or sprawled out of the water. According to scientists, it travelled really swiftly. This dinosaur could move at speeds of more than 50 mph. Salinasaurus had a huge mouth full of conical-shaped teeth in addition to being the size of crocodiles, and despite not eating meat, the Saltasaurus hunt was among the best of its era millions of years ago. Nevertheless, they would still eliminate any potential threats or predators.

This enormous mammal can be found in a variety of habitats, such as grassy steppe-like settings next to lakes where there is an abundance of food or dry places with plants. With its long neck, which is utilized to reach high up into the branches for edible leaves or fruit on lower limbs of larger tree species, it could readily find food.

Saltopus

Saltopus_NT_small

Nobu Tamura email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com http://spinops.blogspot.com/ http://paleoexhibit.blogspot.com/, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Late Triassic, 221 – 210 million years ago
Weight: 1kg / 2.2Ibs
Length 80 – 100m / 13.77ft
Diet: Carnivorous

Saltopus (SALT-oh-pus) was a very small bipedal dinosaur that lived in the Norian Age during the Late Triassic Period, around 221 – 210 million years ago, in what is now Lossiemouth, Scotland, UK. The Earth was considerably warmer than it is now at that time. Saltopus has been identified as a saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaur, which was a more advanced theropod, and a close relative of the herrerasaurs, but its taxonomy is in dispute because only fragmentary remains have been recovered. Other Herrerasauria members include Herrerasaurus, Staurikosaurus, Eoraptor and other very early dinosaurs. Saltopus was one of the first dinosaurs to roam the Earth.

Saltopus measured around 2 feet (0.7 metres) in length, about the size of a rabbit or small cat and weighed only 1 kilogram (2 pounds). It was lightly built and had hollow bones like those of modern birds. Saltopus had thin long legs with clawed toes and short fore limbs with 5 fingers on each hand, the 4th and 5th digits being very small, that were also probably clawed. Its head was elongated and it had many sharp teeth. Saltopus could run very fast and its short stiff tail would have helped it to change direction quickly. Scientists think Saltopus may have even been able to jump. Dinosaur speeds are estimated using their like leg length and estimated body mass and fossilized trackways.

 

Sarcosaurus

Dinosaur Info coming! soon
Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Jurassic, 199 – 194 million years ago
Weight: 50kg
Length 3.5m / 11.4ft
Diet: Carnivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

Paul (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World

Andrews (1921). On some remains of a theropodous dinosaur from the Lower Lias of Barrow-on-Soar. 

Ezcurra, et al., (2020). A revision of the early neotheropod genus Sarcosaurus from the Early Jurassic (Hettangian–Sinemurian) of central England

The name Sarcosaurus, which means “flesh lizard,” is pronounced “sahr-koh-sore-us.” The word “generic” comes from the Greek word “sarx,” which means “flesh.” The basal neotheropod dinosaur genus Sarcosaurus, belongs to the woodi species, commonly known as the crocodile or sarco. The name of the species honours Wood and refers to the type species, Sarcosaurus woodi, which was first reported in 1921. It existed between 199 and 194 million years ago, during the Early Jurassic Hettangian-Sinemurian stages. One of the few theropod genera from the Jurassic period, Sarcosaurus is one of the oldest known theropods

It is one of the two neotheropods from the UK’s uppermost Jurassic that have been described. The Lower Lias in England is where the Sarcosaurus fossils were discovered, and the specimen consists of a pelvis, a vertebra, and the upper portion of a femur. Another specimen has a fragmentary skeleton that lacks the femoral head but has a partial left and right ilia connected to the pubis and a posterior dorsal vertebra. It is clear from the specimen’s skeletal maturity that it is not an early juvenile.

They were big dinosaurs, as evidenced by the Sarcosaurus picture, which depicts their 5m tall, 3.35 m long, and 140 kg or so body weight. They resembled a modern crocodile in appearance, being greenish-brown in hue with dark black patches. Their long, strong tails and a spiky, osteoderm-lined form on the back of a Sarcosaurus were defences against rival predators. Their overbite was caused by the narrow upper jaw crossing over the lower one, and about 75% of the length of their skull was made up by their snout. The huge species would have made noises to mark its territory, hunt for prey, and find potential partners. They were massive and could have moved at a reasonable speed, but they generally liked to lie down in the water. It was a bipedal predator that went out in search of little animals to feed, and could easily catch little prey since it ran quickly. They were extremely violent monsters, according to the Sarcosaurus records, they would wait for their victim by lying motionless in the water and they would emerge from the water and attack their prey as soon as they were close enough. 

Large river systems were where the Sarcosaurus species usually chose to reside. They would hunt anything they saw once they felt they had grown to their maximum bodily size. It was discovered that when they started to hunt, they would start with a snout that was quite long and thin and resembled an Indian gavial, they would have been observed in the river systems preying on enormous fish. Their diet is thought to have comprised huge fish from the river based on the size and form of their snout. However, when the opportunity presented itself, they occasionally also consumed dinos.

Saurolophus

Saurolophus_angustirostris

Illustration by L. Xing and Y. Liu., CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Ornithopod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 70 – 68 million years ago
Weight: 3,000kg
Length 8.2m / 27ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER STUDY AND READING

The name Saurolophus, which means “ridged lizard,” is pronounced, “SORE-oh-LOAF-us.” The name of this genus is derived from the Ancient Greek words “saûros” meaning lizard and “lóphos,” meaning crest. Large herbivorous Ornithopoda hadrosaurids made up this particular dinosaur species. the type species, was first described in 1912. The Late Cretaceous Saurolophus genus flourished in what are now the Horseshoe Canyon and Nemegt formations between 70 million and 68 million years ago in Asia and North America. A few members of the hadrosaurid genus, including those with duck-bills, have been found in Mongolia and China, both in Asia.

In 1911, the Red Deer River in Alberta, Canada, yielded the discovery of their fossilised bones. In 1912, Canadian fossils were used to describe the type species S. osborni. It was actually one of the few dinosaurs whose nearly entire fossil remains, together with the skin impressions, are known from many nations. Later, a specific second specimen was also discovered in parts of China and Mongolia.

The Saurolophus was a large hadrosaur and measured roughly 9.8 meters in length, 2.5 meters in height, and weighed 1,900 kilograms. On top of their hollow, flat, sloping head or skull, they featured a spike-like crest that was angled at a 45-degree angle. This crest was attached to a flap of skin that covered the nostrils and may have been used to scream loudly or attract a mate. Some paleontologists thought the crest produced some type of audible display. These creatures were capable of moving across the ground on two legs or all four limbs. Compared to the legs, the arms were shorter. These plant-eating dinosaurs had long, pointed tails that helped them balance their movements and generally kept them off the ground. Additionally, they featured a slightly upward-curving toothless beak and a mouth with internal organs and teeth that made chewing, or more accurately, grinding up food, much simpler. Scales covered every inch of their body, and this crested herbivore might have been cathemeral, which would have meant that they were only half active during the day. These hadrosaurids would have had a lifespan of perhaps 70–80 years and would have travelled at a speed of 20 mph. These were gregarious animals that lived in herds, and unless they or their environments were in any way threatened, they wouldn’t have necessarily been aggressive. 

It has been discovered that the habitat of this type of duck-billed dinosaur is any terrestrial area, including grasslands, mountains, and forests. These dinosaurs consumed only plants, twigs, leaves, and other organic materials. Their cheeks’ internal tooth configuration and beak made it simple to crush food together. 

Sauropelta

Sauropelta

Sphenaphinae, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 121 – 94 million years ago
Weight: 1,500kg
Length 5.2m / 17.1ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Sauropelta, which means “lizard shield,” is pronounced, “sore-oh-pelt-ah.” The genus name is derived from the Greek words “sauros,” which means lizard, and “pelte,” which means shield, and refers to the armor that forms on the skin, like modern crocodiles. A theropod species are known as a sauropelta, or more precisely, a nodosaurid dinosaur, which belonged to the family of ankylosaurs. Only the “Sauropelta edwardsorum” type species, which was identified and described in 1970, is found in this genus. 

It colonizes North America during the Cretaceous period. It lived between the Aptian Age until 100.5 million years ago, and is also the earliest known genus of nodosaurid. It lived in the present-day U.S. states of Wyoming, Montana, and Utah, a portion of the Cloverly Formation has yielded the fossilized remains of the Sauropelta. A gigantic, four-footed Sauropelta dinosaur’s footprints were discovered in Lower Cretaceous strata in British Columbia, Canada, in 1932, according to paleontologists.

According to estimates, the Sauropelta was 5.2–7.6 m long and weighed 1,500 kg on average. This dinosaur’s tail, which is thought to have had more than 50 vertebrae on its own, made up half of its whole length, and over its hips, the Sauropelta had a shield made of firmly connected plates. Large spines protruded from this dinosaur’s neck, and the spines in the lower row were slightly smaller and pointed outward, whilst the spines in the upper row were larger and directed backward. Rows of tiny bony studs covered its back and hips. Small, razor-sharp plates were attached to the sides of the dinosaur’s body and tail, which let it protect itself from attacks by swinging its tail at the assailants. Due to its front legs being shorter than its back legs, and its tail being typically half as long as its body, the dinosaurs could easily eat plant matter. The skin of the skull was covered with bony plates, and the roof of the head was exceptionally flat. The only way to harm the upper part was to turn it over because the entire upper part was well protected from carnivores. It possessed a small leaf-shaped set of teeth on its cheeks, a narrow skull, large jaws, and a hairy, toothless beak. It could run at a “good trot” and could move around on all fours. It was determined that the Sauropelta inhabited herds.

Wetlands and floodplains are where these dinosaurs were located. This enormous creature was a herbivore, which means it consumed plants. It ate a considerable amount of lowland plant matter to keep itself alive, and to enable selective feeding, its teeth were tiny and fashioned like leaves.

Saurophaganax

Saurophaganax

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Late Jurassic, 151 million years ago
Weight: 3,000kg
Length 10 .5 – 13m / 34 – 43ft
Diet: Carnivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Saurophaganax, which means “king of the lizard eaters,” is pronounced, “sore-oh-fag-ah-naks.” The generic name comes from the Greek words sauros, which means “lizard,” phagein, which means “to devour,” and anax, which means “ruler,” with the combined meaning of “lord of lizard eater.” A massive allosaurid carnivorous dinosaur genus called Saurophaganax includes the S. maximus as its type species which was named in 1995. Latin for “the largest” is the meaning of the species epithet maximus. Theropods of the Saurophaganax maximus species flourished in North America during the Late Jurassic period between 155 and 150 million years ago. It existed at the beginning in the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation (latest Kimmeridgian age, about 151 million years ago) in the United States, Oklahoma. 

The Saurophaganax fossils were first found in Kenton, Oklahoma, in the years 1931 and 1932. The best-known Saurophaganax material was discovered in Oklahoma’s panhandle, while Saurophaganax material, including a partial skeleton, made up of a femur, several tail vertebrae, and a hip bone was discovered in northern New Mexico. They contain at least four individuals’ disarticulated bones. Some of their fossil material has also been located in New Mexico recently.

The Saurophaganax was enormous, measuring roughly 10–13 meters in length, 4 meters in height, and weighing between 3,500 and 4,500 kg. Due to its enormous size, Saurophaganax would have been the main predator in late Jurassic North America. They were highly special due to their many intriguing traits, they were also bipedal and had a massive physique and they walked on their two limbs with thick, razor-sharp claws. They possessed large heads, with the long, bulky skull of the Saurophaganax having knobs or spikes at the top. The tail was thought to be hefty as well because of the loud banging it made on the ground, and although they appeared to be extremely huge, they were actually quite light, which supported the saurophaganax’s rapid pace. They would have had no trouble catching prey thanks to their numerous sharp teeth and highly clawed limbs. Given their wild character and large size, it is thought that these animals may have still congregated in small groups for mating or hunting lesser animals. The Saurophaganax noises were very loud, and they were probably roaring and snarling at one another over food or habitat.

These species, in addition to making their homes in woodlands, meadows, and forests, inhabited a semi-arid habitat. The Saurophaganax consumed only meat. Consequently, it was noted that because it had a huge body, a lot of food would have been required. This would have corroborated the idea that this ferocious predator regularly stole or, more accurately, scavenged the food or prey of other animals. 

Sauroposeidon

Sauroposeidon_proteles

Levi bernardo, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Sauropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 112 – 110 million years ago
Weight: 66,000kg
Length 34m / 112ft
Diet: Herbivore

Sauroposeidon (Sore-owe-pos-eye-don) is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Aptian and Albian epochs during the Late Cretaceous period around 112 – 110 million years ago on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, the River Delta, which ran through Oklahoma at that time. Its relatives include another huge sauropod dinosaur, Brachiosaurus. Other dinosaurs that livedat the same time were the carnivorous Deinonychus, the armoured herbivores Sauropelta and Nodosaurus, and the sail-backed carnivore Acrocanthosaurus.

Sauroposeidon was a huge dinosaur and measured 112 feet (34 metres) in length, 56 feet (17 metres) in height and weighed a massive 66 tons. It was probably the tallest, longest and heaviest dinosaur ever to walk the Earth beating even the enormous dinosaur Mamenchisaurus. It is thought that when Sauroposeidon walked, it shook the Earth. Sauroposeidon had a short, bulky body and would have stood 23 feet (7 metres) at shoulder height.

Sauroposeidon was a quadrupedal dinosaur that walked on its 4 thick, trunk-like legs. Its fore limbs were longer than its hind limbs and it had a similar body shape to modern day giraffes.

Saurornithoides

Saurornithoides

Audrey.m.horn, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 85 – 80 million years ago
Weight: 23 – 54kg / 51 – 120Ib
Length 2 – 3m / 6.6 – 9.8ft
Diet: Carnivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Saurornithoides, which means “bird-like lizard,” is pronounced “sore-OR-nith-OID-eez”. The name refers to the creature’s bird-like cranium and is derived from the Greek words saur, which means lizard, ornith, and eides, which means form. The type species of the troodontid maniraptoran carnivorous dinosaur genus Saurornithoides, which was named in 1924, is S. mongoliensis. It lived in Asia throughout the Cretaceous period from 83.6 million years ago until the Maastrichtian Age, and inhabited the deserts of Mongolia and Nebraska. 

Initially, just one or possibly two Saurornithoides specimens were recognized, closely grouped together in the same stratum of the Mongolian Djadochta Formation. A Chinese laborer discovered the fossils in 1923, where he found a single skull and jaw, together with surrounding vertebrae, a fragment of a pelvis, a hind leg, and a foot. A young S. mongoliensis specimen was described in 1993. Since Saurornithoides and other troodontids had well-ossified hindlimbs, it was likely that they needed little to no parental care as infants.

These Maniraptorans were petite, graceful dinosaurs that resembled birds, belonged to the Theropoda genus. According to the skeleton that has been found, Saurornithoides were between 2.3 and 3 meters long and weighed between 23 and 54 kilograms. These animals could move quickly on their hind legs and were predators with very good hearing and vision. The most distinctive aspect of this dinosaur is its cranium, which measured 7.4 inches across the midline, and they had raptorial arms and sickled claws. On the second toe of each foot, it had a large claw which was retractable and expanding. The dinosaur’s big eyes provided it with excellent depth perception and its huge eye sockets gave it both great night vision, and good vision in the light. It was swift and intelligent because of its long, low head and a relatively large brain.. 

It is believed that desert areas are the Saurornithoides’ optimal environment. It caught live prey, which would have included small animals, by hunting them with its long arms and hands.

Saurornitholestes

Saurornitholestes

Ferahgo the Assassin (Emily Willoughby, e.deinonychus@gmail.com) http://emilywilloughby.com/, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 75 million years ago
Weight: 12kg / 30Ib
Length 2m / 6ft
Diet: Carnivorous

Saurornitholestes (Saw-roar-nith-owe-less-teez) is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur that lived in the Upper Campanian Stage during the Upper Cretaceous period around 75 million years ago in Alberta, Canada, North America. Other dromaeosaurids include the Velociraptor and Dromaeosaurus.

Saurornitholestes was a small, bipedal dinosaur who measured 6 feet (2 metres) in length and weighed 12 kilograms (30 pounds). Like other theropods in the family Dromaeosauridae, Saurornitholestes had a long, curved, blade-like claw on the second toe. It was similar to the Velociraptor as it had large sharp, fang-like teeth in the front of its jaws. Saurornitholestes was lightly built and had long legs and a beak. Some believe that Saurornitholestes may have been covered in feathers. This dinosaur had a relatively large brain.

Saurornitholestes was a carnivore and was perhaps a scavenger who fed up on carrion and small animals and reptiles such as lizards, frogs and early birds.

Scelidosaurus

Scelidosaurus_harrisonii

Jack Mayer Wood, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Early Jurassic, 191 million years ago
Weight: 270kg / 595Ibs
Length 4m / 13ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Scelidosaurus, which translates to “limb lizard,” is pronounced, “skel-EYE-doh-sore-us.” This genus of herbivorous armored ornithischian dinosaurs gets its name from the Greek words “skelis” (rib of meat) and “sauros” (lizard). Currently, Scelidosaurus harrisonii, named and described in 1861, is the only species of this genus that is known to exist. Approximately 191 million years ago, during the Sinemurian to Pliensbachian stages of the Early Jurassic Period, Scelidosaurus thrived. At that time, the Laurasian supercontinent was home to this genus. Its fossils have been discovered in the Dorset, England’s Charmouth Mudstone Formation close to Charmouth, and these fossils are renowned for their superb preservation. The first fossil evidence of Scelidosaurus was discovered and described in 1860 where a specimen of a  complete skeleton was found. The fossil includes pieces of the hind limbs, the knee joint, the top portions of the tibia and fibula, and the lower section of the femur. Only the snout tip, the neck base, the forelimbs, and the tail end are missing. Currently, Scelidosaurus is the only recognized dinosaur discovered in Ireland.

According to estimates, the Scelidosaurus was about 3.8–4 m long and weighed about 270 kg. Scelidosaurus had scutes, which are bony plates that run from the skull to the tail of these armored dinosaurs, and bony spikes on the skin. The specimen demonstrates that both of its forelimbs and hindlimbs were utilized for movement. They had premaxillae and front snout bones. Additionally, they shared a common rough center expansion with a tiny upper beak. The “epivomers,” unique plates that are located above the vomers and serve as the lid of the lizard-like dinosaur’s nasal cavity. The back of the skull has a fusion along with two sizable, upward-curving osteoderms that resemble horns. Only the angular portion of the lower jaw shows any exostosis, indicating that there is no connected osteoderm, and it had large, somewhat inward-curving teeth in its jaws which were well suited for shredding hard plant material. It had thick, hoof-like limbs that culminated in enormous clawed feet, and the low, stocky body was highest at the hips because the hind limbs were longer than the forelimbs. Scelidosaurus may have been able to move faster than many of the quadrupedal dinosaurs, according to some paleontologists. Others contend that it was a lumbering, sluggish creature that relied on its massively armored body to stave off predators. 

Its range is primarily constrained to regions bordering historic rivers and streams. They would saunter around in search of food in the lakes, swamps, and highly vegetated floodplains that were covered in forest, with the low-growing, shrubby plant life that flourished in the early Jurassic period made up its diet. It was thought by paleontologists to have been predominantly a land-dwelling animal that foraged near streams. Due to a limited range of motion in their jaw joint, they could only move their jaws vertically, Scelidosaurus consumed food by squeezing it between the inner and outer surfaces of its upper and lower teeth in an exact but uncomplicated up-and-down jaw movement. Actually, there was no need for the teeth to come into contact.

Scutellosaurus

Scutellosaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Early Jurassic, 196 million years ago
Weight: 10kg / 22Ibs
Length 1.2m / 3.9ft
Diet: Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY 

In reference to its thick armor, Scutellosaurus is pronounced “skoo-tell-oh-sore-us,” which translates to “little shield lizard.” The Latin word “scutellum,” which means “small shield,” and the Greek word “sauros,” which means “lizard,” are combined to form the genus name. A genus of thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaurs is called Scutellosaurus. S. “lawleri” and is a type species that was named and described in 1981, and it is classed in the Thyreophora, the armoured dinosaurs.  Scutellosaurus lived approximately 196 million years ago, in the early Jurassic Period, in what is now Arizona, USA.

The first Scutellosaurus fossils, which included a nearly complete skeleton, were found in Arizona’s Kayenta Formation in 1971. The holotype specimen of Scutellosaurus lawleri was discovered on Navajo Nation territory in Coconino County, Arizona, in the West Moenkopi Plateau location in the Silty Facies Member of the Kayenta Formation. In addition to partially preserved premaxillae with teeth, a right maxilla with seven teeth, a left maxilla with five teeth, a left dentary with 18 teeth, a right dentary with 10 teeth, additional skull and skeletal fragments, various pedes bones, including a possible distal tarsal bone, and more than 300 osteoderms were found.

Scutellosaurus was a little, light-built, ground-dwelling herbivore that was 10 kilograms in weight, about 1.2 meters long, and 50 cm tall at the hips. Scutellosaurus is the only known bipedal thyreophoran, and it may have been able to walk on its hind legs. Lengthy arms and a tail that was unusually long suggested that it browsed on all fours to balance the weight of the armored body. There were a large number of scutes that ran from its neck all the way down to its tail, and it had up to five  of these formed parallel rows on each side. The shields varied in shape, with some being flat and others having pits and providing defense against larger, carnivorous dinosaurs. With several wide incisors and a row of fluted, leaf-shaped Scutellosaurus teeth, the 3.5 in (9 cm) long skull appears to have been designed for plant-eating. It was also a highly rapid runner to get away from predators as quickly as possible. It would most likely have been restricted to intuitive reflexes due to the brain’s limited area in the heavily reinforced armored skull. It may have been able to learn from experience despite having a tiny brain, which led to the dinosaur becoming unpredictable and hostile.

Dinosaurs belonging to the Thyreophoran suborder were diverse and important terrestrial herbivores. It might have swallowed its food entire because it lacked cheeks to store food and had teeth designed like leaves to tear leaves.

Secernosaurus

Dinosaur Info coming! soon
Type: Ornithopod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 71 – 65 million years ago
Weight: 2,200kg
Length 3m / 9.8ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Segisaurus

Segisaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Mid Jurassic, 195 – 180 million years ago
Weight: 4 – 7kg / 8.8 – 15.2Ibs
Length 1m / 3.3ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Segnosaurus

Segnosaurus

PaleoNeolitic, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 102 – 86 million years ago
Weight: 1,300kg
Length 6 – 7m / 20 – 23ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Shamosaurus

Dinosaur Info coming! soon
Type: Armoured
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 121 – 99 million years ago
Weight: 2,000kg
Length 5m / 16.4ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Shanag

Shanag

Danny Cicchetti, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 130 million years ago
Weight: 5kg
Length 1.5m / 11ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Shantungosaurus

Shantungosaurus

w:user:Debivort, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Ornithopod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 178 – 74 million years ago
Weight: 16,000kg
Length 14.7m / 48ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Shunosaurus

Shunosaurus

User:Smokeybjb (Edits by User:Paleocolour), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Sauropod
Lived: Mid Jurassic, 170 – 160 million years ago
Weight: 3,000kg
Length 11m / 36ft
Diet: Herbivorous

Shunosaurus measured 40 feet (11 metres) in length and weighed around 19 tons. It is the only sauropod known that had a bony club at the end of its tail, formed by enlarged vertebrae. This small tail club had two small spines on it and was probably used for defence to swipe away predators.

Shunosaurus was a quadrupedal dinosaur and walked on all 4 of its trunk-like legs. Its body was huge and bulky and it had a long neck, a long tail and a short deep skull. Its front and hind legs were similar in length, making its back relatively level with the ground.

Shunosaurus was a herbivore and ate plant material. It would have had to eat a huge amount to sustain its large size, although it was not as huge as other giants such as Argentinosaurus and Diplodocus.

Shuvuuia

Shuvuuia

FunkMonk (Michael B. H.), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 75 – 81 million years ago
Weight: 2kg / 4.4Ibs
Length 60cm / 36ft
Diet: Omnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Silvisaurus

Silvisaurus

ABelov2014 (https://abelov2014.deviantart.com/), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 121 – 112 million years ago
Weight: 1,000 – 3,000kgs
Length 4m / 13ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sinocalliopteryx

Sinocalliopteryx

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 124.6 million years ago
Weight: 20kgs
Length 2.37m / 7.78ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sinornithosaurus

Sinornithosaurus

GFDL, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 122 – 120 million years ago
Weight: 3kgs
Length 1.2m / 3.9ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sinosauropteryx

Sinosauropteryx

No machine-readable author provided. Dinoguy2 assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 122 – 120 million years ago
Weight: 0.55kgs / 1.21Ibs
Length 1.07m / 3.51ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sinovenator

Sinovenator

Conty, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous, 127 – 121 million years ago
Weight: 2.5kg / 5.5Ibs
Length 1m / 3.2ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sinraptor

Sinraptor

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Mid Jurassic, 169 – 142 million years ago
Weight: 3,900kg
Length 11.5m / 37.7ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Sonidosaurus

Sonidosaurus

Machairo, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Sauropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 89 – 65 million years ago
Weight: 3,000kg
Length 9m / 30ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Spinosaurus

Spinosaurus

derivative work: Dinoguy2 (talk)Spinosaurus_BW.jpg: ArthurWeasley, CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 99 – 93.5 million years ago
Weight: 7,000 – 9,000kg
Length 16 – 18m / 52 – 59ft
Diet: Carnivorous

Spinosaurus was instantly recognisable with a beautiful sail that went down the length of its back. Brightly coloured to attract mates or frighten its rivals, Spinosaurus was a beautiful but also a highly effective predator.

Spinosaurus was from a family of dinosaurs called Spinosaurids. This unusual family of dinosaurs all had tall spines or sails along their backs and included the terrifying Spinosaurus.

Spinosaurus was a Theropod, carnivorous, and as it lived comfortably on both land and water scientists believe it would have eaten both water and land prey. Spinosaurus was such a large predator it would have been able to tackle anything it wanted. However, scientists believe that Spinosaurus would have eaten more aquatic prey. Around 110 million years ago there would have been giant sea turtles, large fish such as the Mawsonia and perhaps even small plesiosaurs.

Spinosaurus lived in North Africa, with bones of this dinosaur found in Egypt and Niger. Spinosaurus lived around 110 million years ago in the Cretaceous period.

 

Staurikosaurus

Staurikosaurus

ДиБгд, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Late Triassic, 225 million years ago
Weight: 30kg / 30Ibs
Length 2.25m / 7.5ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Stegoceras

Stegoceras

GFDL, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Ornithopod
Lived: Late Cretaceous, 77.5 – 74 million years ago
Weight: 10 – 40kg / 22 to 88Ibs
Length 2 – 2.5m / 6.6 – 8.2ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Stegosaurus

Stegosaurus

DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS), CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Late Jurassic 150 – 145 million years ago
Weight: 3,000kg
Length 7 – 9m / 23 – 30 – ft
Diet: Herbivorous

Stegosaurus (steg-oh-saw-rus) from Greek stegos (στέγος), which means roof, and sauros (σαῦρος), which means lizard – is without doubt one of the most recognisable dinosaurs.

With its beautiful and rather large plates along its back make it instantly recognisable all over the world. 

Stegosaurus is the largest and most famous member of the stegosaur family and would have been an incredible sight to see roaming the open plains of what is now North America in the late Jurassic Period 150 million years ago.

The types of plants that were around at the time include cycads, ferns and horsetails were Stegosaurus’ diet. Stegosaurus may have also eaten the occasional conifer tree saplings, but we’ll never be 100% sure.

Unfortunately, Stegosaurus wasn’t the smartest dinosaur in the world. Stegosaurus probably had the smallest brain out of any dinosaur that’s ever been discovered. Stegosaurus’ brain was around five centimetres long which is roughly the size of a walnut. Experts are still really puzzled as to why such a large animal had such a small brain.

Stegosaurus had incredibly strong back legs, which were nearly twice as long as its front legs. Its flat feet had three big toes and one tiny one designed for carrying weight. Stegosaurus was not built for speed and was probably comparable to a modern day an armoured tank, slow but very powerful.

Stenopelix

Stenopelix

Danny Cicchetti, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Ceratopsian
Lived: Early Cretaceous 140 million years ago
Weight: 10kg
Length 1.5m / 4.9ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Struthiomimus

Struthiomimus

Credit to en:user:Ballista. Taken from the english wikipedia, uploaded here with the same license., CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Small theropod
Lived: Late Cretaceous 74 – 76 million years ago
Weight: 150kg / 330Ibs
Length 4m / 13.1ft
Diet: Omnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Struthiosaurus

Struthiosaurus

Baron Franz Nopsca(Life time: 1877–1933), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Armoured
Lived: Late Cretaceous 83 – 75 million years ago
Weight: 300 – 400kg / 661 – 881Ibs
Length 2.2m / 7.2ft
Diet: Herbivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Styracosaurus

Styracosaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Ceratopsian
Lived: Late Cretaceous 75.5 – 75 million years ago
Weight: 2,700kg
Length 5.5m / 18ft
Diet: Herbivorous

Styracosaurus (sty-RACK-oh-SAWR-us) was a genus of ceratopsian dinosaur who lived in the Campanian stage during the Cretaceous Period, around 76 to 75 million years ago. Styracosaurus lived in Alberta, Arizona, Montana, North America.

Styracosaurus measured 18 feet (5.5 metres) in length, 6 feet (1.8 metres) in height and weighed around 3 tons. It had 6 horns extending from a neck frill and a smaller horn above each of its eyes. Their skull was massive, with a large nostril and a tall straight nose horn. Each of the 4 longest frill spines was comparable in length to the nose horn, at 50 to 55 centimetres long.

Styracosaurus was quadrupedal and had 4 short, thick legs, a thick, pointed tail and a powerful body and shoulders. Like most ceratopsids, Styracosaurus had large fenestrae (skull openings) in its frill. The front of the mouth had a toothless beak.

 

Suchomimus

suchomimus

Nkansahrexford, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Large theropod
Lived: Early Cretaceous 125 – 112 million years ago
Weight: 2,500 – 5,200kg
Length 9.5 – 11m / 31 – 36ft
Diet: Carnivorous
Dinosaur Info coming! soon

Supersaurus

Supersaurus

LadyofHats, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type: Sauropod
Lived: Jurassic Period 155 – 145 million years ago
Weight: 55,000kg
Length 40m / 131ft
Diet: Herbivorous

Supersaurus (super-SAW-rus) was a sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Kimmeridgian – Tithonian stages during the Jurassic period, around 155 – 145 million years ago, in Colorado. USA. Supersaurus is very closely related to Apatosaurus. Jurassic was a time of huge sauropods including Diplodocus, Camarasaurus, Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus. Also around at that time was Stegosaurus and the fierce carnivore, Allosaurus.

Supersaurus measured 131 feet (40 metres) in length, 54 feet (16.5 metres) in height and weighed 55 tons. It had a very long neck that measured 39 feet (12 metres) long and a small head. It may have had very limited vertical neck mobility. Supersaurus held its neck more or less parallel to the ground. Its long neck would have been useful for foraging in trees in forests where it would not otherwise be able to venture because of its great size.

Supersaurus was a herbivore and would have used its spoon-like teeth to strip foliage and grind up prehistoric plant material such as conifers, gingkos, cycads and ferns. It would have eaten a huge amount of vegetation to sustain its huge size and may have swallowed gastroliths (stomach stones) to help with the digestion of tough plant material.

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Last Updated on 28/06/2022 by admin