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Dinosaur names beginning with the letter S.

Saichania

Saichania

JaviDex, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 80 million years ago
Weight:2,000kg
Length6.6m / 21.6ft
Diet:Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

Saichania, which means “beautiful,” is pronounced, “sigh-CHAN-ee-a.” The generic name, which alludes to the type specimen’s pristine condition of preservation, is translated into Mongolian as “the beautiful one.” Ankylosaurid dinosaurs of the genus Saichania were herbivores, and were  given their name and description of the type species Saichania chulsanensis in 1977. The particular name alludes to the provenance close to Chulsa. Saichania is a type of dinosaur that was once found in Mongolia and parts of China, predominantly in Asia, and lived around 90–95 million years ago, during the Campanian Late Cretaceous epoch. 

Early in the 1970s, in Mongolia, the first Saichania fossils were discovered, but only a small amount of fossil evidence has been used to describe this species, and particularly little is known about the animal’s back. The Barun Goyot Formation’s layer from the late Campanian, which is roughly 73 million years old, is where the Saichania holotype was discovered. It is made up of a skull and the front portion of the postcranial skeleton, which includes the two cervical halfrings, the left shoulder girdle, the left forelimb, the left shoulder, seven neck vertebrae, ten back vertebrae, and significant armour in the living posture. The holotype has a number of articulated parts. A fragmented skull roof and related armour are among the other specimens that were referred.

Saichania was a big ankylosaurid dinosaur with a length of 7 meters and a weight of almost 2 tons, their physical makeup resembles that of ankylosaurids. They had small forelimbs and a torso that was strongly armored, and due to its robust rump, which was formed by the ossification and fusing of its ribs, girdle, spinal column, and breast bones, Saichania is regarded as remarkable for an Ankylosaurid. The firm palate in the mouth of Saichania is an intriguing characteristic, as they could afford to spend more time chewing food with up-and-down jaw movements to enable considerably more efficient digestion. This means that Saichania would be able to breathe when its mouth was full of plants. While the hard palate would have been beneficial in an aforementioned way, it would also have made it simpler for Saichania to breathe through the snout’s extensive network of air passageways. They had spikes that were strikingly similar to those of a saltwater crocodile. One of the reasons the Saichania were unable to move quickly was due to their weight, which allowed their large carnivorous dinosaur predators to hunt them. They were protected by the armor on their back.

The habitat of this herbivorous dinosaur was the desert, however, the areas they lived in previously lacked vegetation and green food. They used to live in desert regions, scrublands, semi-arid areas, and some dry forests. In their diet, they consumed grasses, leaves, bushes, herbs, vegetable leaves, and flowers.  Around 90–100 million years ago, natural disasters or meteor strikes caused the dinosaur Saichania to be extinct.

Saltasaurus

Saltasaurus

LadyofHats, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Sauropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 70 – 65 million years ago
Weight:6,870kg
Length12.8m / 42ft
Diet:Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Saltasaurus, which means “Salta lizard,” is pronounced, “salt-a-sore-us.” The province of Salta in northwest Argentina, where the first fossils were first discovered, is where the term’s generic name originates. The type species of the saltasaurid titanosauird sauropod herbivorous dinosaur genus Saltasaurus is Saltasaurus loricatus. The species name loricatus means “protected by small armored plates” in Latin. It was named and described in 1980. It inhabited South America’s terrestrial regions throughout the Cretaceous epoch 66 million years ago. Saltasaurus is one of the last sauropods, living just before the group’s extinction.

Argentina’s Saltasaurus fossils were discovered between 1975 and 1977. The holotype was discovered in a stratum of the Lecho Formation that is roughly 70 million years old and is from the early Maastrichtian era of the Upper Cretaceous. It is made up of two ilia and a sacrum, rear skull fragments, teeth, vertebrae from the neck, back, hip, and tail, fragments of the pelvis and shoulder girdle, limb bones, and armour are among the additional fossils discovered. Two adults and three adolescents or subadults, or a minimum of five individuals, are represented by these bones.

In comparison to all other dinosaurs of the time, the Saltasaurus was enormous. The Saltasaurus was thought to have a height of 3.65 m and a length of 6.1 m, and its weight is thought to be about 2540 kg. The enormous nasal holes that encompassed half of this sauropod’s face were one of its most distinctive traits and helped it to breathe easily in any climate or location. Additionally, the spikes are located on either side of its skull, where it may use them to defend itself from predators while escaping by sprinting quickly. As it was a herbivore that lived throughout southern Patagonia, Argentina, the Saltasaurus is regarded as one of the most intriguing titanosaurs. They have extremely tiny legs and long, thin, transparent tails. Along the length of its body, this sauropod had tiny bone plates implanted in its skin. It contains 320 bones in total, 40 of which cover its head and neck. Despite having lived on land in the past, the Saltasaurus could swim. These organisms most likely communicate with one another by displaying distinct body positions while standing or sprawled out of the water. According to scientists, it travelled really swiftly. This dinosaur could move at speeds of more than 50 mph. Salinasaurus had a huge mouth full of conical-shaped teeth in addition to being the size of crocodiles, and despite not eating meat, the Saltasaurus hunt was among the best of its era millions of years ago. Nevertheless, they would still eliminate any potential threats or predators.

This enormous mammal can be found in a variety of habitats, such as grassy steppe-like settings next to lakes where there is an abundance of food or dry places with plants. With its long neck, which is utilized to reach high up into the branches for edible leaves or fruit on lower limbs of larger tree species, it could readily find food.

Saltopus

Saltopus_NT_small

Nobu Tamura email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com http://spinops.blogspot.com/ http://paleoexhibit.blogspot.com/, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Late Triassic, 221 – 210 million years ago
Weight:1kg / 2.2Ibs
Length80 – 100m / 13.77ft
Diet:Carnivorous

Saltopus (SALT-oh-pus) was a very small bipedal dinosaur that lived in the Norian Age during the Late Triassic Period, around 221 – 210 million years ago, in what is now Lossiemouth, Scotland, UK. The Earth was considerably warmer than it is now at that time. Saltopus has been identified as a saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaur, which was a more advanced theropod, and a close relative of the herrerasaurs, but its taxonomy is in dispute because only fragmentary remains have been recovered. Other Herrerasauria members include Herrerasaurus, Staurikosaurus, Eoraptor and other very early dinosaurs. Saltopus was one of the first dinosaurs to roam the Earth.

Saltopus measured around 2 feet (0.7 metres) in length, about the size of a rabbit or small cat and weighed only 1 kilogram (2 pounds). It was lightly built and had hollow bones like those of modern birds. Saltopus had thin long legs with clawed toes and short fore limbs with 5 fingers on each hand, the 4th and 5th digits being very small, that were also probably clawed. Its head was elongated and it had many sharp teeth. Saltopus could run very fast and its short stiff tail would have helped it to change direction quickly. Scientists think Saltopus may have even been able to jump. Dinosaur speeds are estimated using their like leg length and estimated body mass and fossilized trackways.

 

Sarcosaurus

Sarcosaurus

Image source: Natural History Museum

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Jurassic, 199 – 194 million years ago
Weight:50kg
Length3.5m / 11.4ft
Diet:Carnivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

Paul (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World

Andrews (1921). On some remains of a theropodous dinosaur from the Lower Lias of Barrow-on-Soar. 

Ezcurra, et al., (2020). A revision of the early neotheropod genus Sarcosaurus from the Early Jurassic (Hettangian–Sinemurian) of central England

The name Sarcosaurus, which means “flesh lizard,” is pronounced “sahr-koh-sore-us.” The word “generic” comes from the Greek word “sarx,” which means “flesh.” The basal neotheropod dinosaur genus Sarcosaurus, belongs to the woodi species, commonly known as the crocodile or sarco. The name of the species honours Wood and refers to the type species, Sarcosaurus woodi, which was first reported in 1921. It existed between 199 and 194 million years ago, during the Early Jurassic Hettangian-Sinemurian stages. One of the few theropod genera from the Jurassic period, Sarcosaurus is one of the oldest known theropods

It is one of the two neotheropods from the UK’s uppermost Jurassic that have been described. The Lower Lias in England is where the Sarcosaurus fossils were discovered, and the specimen consists of a pelvis, a vertebra, and the upper portion of a femur. Another specimen has a fragmentary skeleton that lacks the femoral head but has a partial left and right ilia connected to the pubis and a posterior dorsal vertebra. It is clear from the specimen’s skeletal maturity that it is not an early juvenile.

They were big dinosaurs, as evidenced by the Sarcosaurus picture, which depicts their 5m tall, 3.35 m long, and 140 kg or so body weight. They resembled a modern crocodile in appearance, being greenish-brown in hue with dark black patches. Their long, strong tails and a spiky, osteoderm-lined form on the back of a Sarcosaurus were defences against rival predators. Their overbite was caused by the narrow upper jaw crossing over the lower one, and about 75% of the length of their skull was made up by their snout. The huge species would have made noises to mark its territory, hunt for prey, and find potential partners. They were massive and could have moved at a reasonable speed, but they generally liked to lie down in the water. It was a bipedal predator that went out in search of little animals to feed, and could easily catch little prey since it ran quickly. They were extremely violent monsters, according to the Sarcosaurus records, they would wait for their victim by lying motionless in the water and they would emerge from the water and attack their prey as soon as they were close enough. 

Large river systems were where the Sarcosaurus species usually chose to reside. They would hunt anything they saw once they felt they had grown to their maximum bodily size. It was discovered that when they started to hunt, they would start with a snout that was quite long and thin and resembled an Indian gavial, they would have been observed in the river systems preying on enormous fish. Their diet is thought to have comprised huge fish from the river based on the size and form of their snout. However, when the opportunity presented itself, they occasionally also consumed dinos.

Saurolophus

Saurolophus_angustirostris

Illustration by L. Xing and Y. Liu., CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Ornithopod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 70 – 68 million years ago
Weight:3,000kg
Length8.2m / 27ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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The name Saurolophus, which means “ridged lizard,” is pronounced, “SORE-oh-LOAF-us.” The name of this genus is derived from the Ancient Greek words “saûros” meaning lizard and “lóphos,” meaning crest. Large herbivorous Ornithopoda hadrosaurids made up this particular dinosaur species. the type species, was first described in 1912. The Late Cretaceous Saurolophus genus flourished in what are now the Horseshoe Canyon and Nemegt formations between 70 million and 68 million years ago in Asia and North America. A few members of the hadrosaurid genus, including those with duck-bills, have been found in Mongolia and China, both in Asia.

In 1911, the Red Deer River in Alberta, Canada, yielded the discovery of their fossilised bones. In 1912, Canadian fossils were used to describe the type species S. osborni. It was actually one of the few dinosaurs whose nearly entire fossil remains, together with the skin impressions, are known from many nations. Later, a specific second specimen was also discovered in parts of China and Mongolia.

The Saurolophus was a large hadrosaur and measured roughly 9.8 meters in length, 2.5 meters in height, and weighed 1,900 kilograms. On top of their hollow, flat, sloping head or skull, they featured a spike-like crest that was angled at a 45-degree angle. This crest was attached to a flap of skin that covered the nostrils and may have been used to scream loudly or attract a mate. Some paleontologists thought the crest produced some type of audible display. These creatures were capable of moving across the ground on two legs or all four limbs. Compared to the legs, the arms were shorter. These plant-eating dinosaurs had long, pointed tails that helped them balance their movements and generally kept them off the ground. Additionally, they featured a slightly upward-curving toothless beak and a mouth with internal organs and teeth that made chewing, or more accurately, grinding up food, much simpler. Scales covered every inch of their body, and this crested herbivore might have been cathemeral, which would have meant that they were only half active during the day. These hadrosaurids would have had a lifespan of perhaps 70–80 years and would have travelled at a speed of 20 mph. These were gregarious animals that lived in herds, and unless they or their environments were in any way threatened, they wouldn’t have necessarily been aggressive. 

It has been discovered that the habitat of this type of duck-billed dinosaur is any terrestrial area, including grasslands, mountains, and forests. These dinosaurs consumed only plants, twigs, leaves, and other organic materials. Their cheeks’ internal tooth configuration and beak made it simple to crush food together. 

Sauropelta

Sauropelta

Sphenaphinae, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 121 – 94 million years ago
Weight:1,500kg
Length5.2m / 17.1ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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The name Sauropelta, which means “lizard shield,” is pronounced, “sore-oh-pelt-ah.” The genus name is derived from the Greek words “sauros,” which means lizard, and “pelte,” which means shield, and refers to the armor that forms on the skin, like modern crocodiles. A theropod species are known as a sauropelta, or more precisely, a nodosaurid dinosaur, which belonged to the family of ankylosaurs. Only the “Sauropelta edwardsorum” type species, which was identified and described in 1970, is found in this genus. 

It colonizes North America during the Cretaceous period. It lived between the Aptian Age until 100.5 million years ago, and is also the earliest known genus of nodosaurid. It lived in the present-day U.S. states of Wyoming, Montana, and Utah, a portion of the Cloverly Formation has yielded the fossilized remains of the Sauropelta. A gigantic, four-footed Sauropelta dinosaur’s footprints were discovered in Lower Cretaceous strata in British Columbia, Canada, in 1932, according to paleontologists.

According to estimates, the Sauropelta was 5.2–7.6 m long and weighed 1,500 kg on average. This dinosaur’s tail, which is thought to have had more than 50 vertebrae on its own, made up half of its whole length, and over its hips, the Sauropelta had a shield made of firmly connected plates. Large spines protruded from this dinosaur’s neck, and the spines in the lower row were slightly smaller and pointed outward, whilst the spines in the upper row were larger and directed backward. Rows of tiny bony studs covered its back and hips. Small, razor-sharp plates were attached to the sides of the dinosaur’s body and tail, which let it protect itself from attacks by swinging its tail at the assailants. Due to its front legs being shorter than its back legs, and its tail being typically half as long as its body, the dinosaurs could easily eat plant matter. The skin of the skull was covered with bony plates, and the roof of the head was exceptionally flat. The only way to harm the upper part was to turn it over because the entire upper part was well protected from carnivores. It possessed a small leaf-shaped set of teeth on its cheeks, a narrow skull, large jaws, and a hairy, toothless beak. It could run at a “good trot” and could move around on all fours. It was determined that the Sauropelta inhabited herds.

Wetlands and floodplains are where these dinosaurs were located. This enormous creature was a herbivore, which means it consumed plants. It ate a considerable amount of lowland plant matter to keep itself alive, and to enable selective feeding, its teeth were tiny and fashioned like leaves.

Saurophaganax

Saurophaganax

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Late Jurassic, 151 million years ago
Weight:3,000kg
Length10 .5 – 13m / 34 – 43ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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The name Saurophaganax, which means “king of the lizard eaters,” is pronounced, “sore-oh-fag-ah-naks.” The generic name comes from the Greek words sauros, which means “lizard,” phagein, which means “to devour,” and anax, which means “ruler,” with the combined meaning of “lord of lizard eater.” A massive allosaurid carnivorous dinosaur genus called Saurophaganax includes the S. maximus as its type species which was named in 1995. Latin for “the largest” is the meaning of the species epithet maximus. Theropods of the Saurophaganax maximus species flourished in North America during the Late Jurassic period between 155 and 150 million years ago. It existed at the beginning in the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation (latest Kimmeridgian age, about 151 million years ago) in the United States, Oklahoma. 

The Saurophaganax fossils were first found in Kenton, Oklahoma, in the years 1931 and 1932. The best-known Saurophaganax material was discovered in Oklahoma’s panhandle, while Saurophaganax material, including a partial skeleton, made up of a femur, several tail vertebrae, and a hip bone was discovered in northern New Mexico. They contain at least four individuals’ disarticulated bones. Some of their fossil material has also been located in New Mexico recently.

The Saurophaganax was enormous, measuring roughly 10–13 meters in length, 4 meters in height, and weighing between 3,500 and 4,500 kg. Due to its enormous size, Saurophaganax would have been the main predator in late Jurassic North America. They were highly special due to their many intriguing traits, they were also bipedal and had a massive physique and they walked on their two limbs with thick, razor-sharp claws. They possessed large heads, with the long, bulky skull of the Saurophaganax having knobs or spikes at the top. The tail was thought to be hefty as well because of the loud banging it made on the ground, and although they appeared to be extremely huge, they were actually quite light, which supported the saurophaganax’s rapid pace. They would have had no trouble catching prey thanks to their numerous sharp teeth and highly clawed limbs. Given their wild character and large size, it is thought that these animals may have still congregated in small groups for mating or hunting lesser animals. The Saurophaganax noises were very loud, and they were probably roaring and snarling at one another over food or habitat.

These species, in addition to making their homes in woodlands, meadows, and forests, inhabited a semi-arid habitat. The Saurophaganax consumed only meat. Consequently, it was noted that because it had a huge body, a lot of food would have been required. This would have corroborated the idea that this ferocious predator regularly stole or, more accurately, scavenged the food or prey of other animals. 

Sauroposeidon

Sauroposeidon_proteles

Levi bernardo, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Sauropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 112 – 110 million years ago
Weight:66,000kg
Length34m / 112ft
Diet:Herbivore

Sauroposeidon (Sore-owe-pos-eye-don) is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Aptian and Albian epochs during the Late Cretaceous period around 112 – 110 million years ago on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, the River Delta, which ran through Oklahoma at that time. Its relatives include another huge sauropod dinosaur, Brachiosaurus. Other dinosaurs that livedat the same time were the carnivorous Deinonychus, the armoured herbivores Sauropelta and Nodosaurus, and the sail-backed carnivore Acrocanthosaurus.

Sauroposeidon was a huge dinosaur and measured 112 feet (34 metres) in length, 56 feet (17 metres) in height and weighed a massive 66 tons. It was probably the tallest, longest and heaviest dinosaur ever to walk the Earth beating even the enormous dinosaur Mamenchisaurus. It is thought that when Sauroposeidon walked, it shook the Earth. Sauroposeidon had a short, bulky body and would have stood 23 feet (7 metres) at shoulder height.

Sauroposeidon was a quadrupedal dinosaur that walked on its 4 thick, trunk-like legs. Its fore limbs were longer than its hind limbs and it had a similar body shape to modern day giraffes.

Saurornithoides

Saurornithoides

Audrey.m.horn, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 85 – 80 million years ago
Weight:23 – 54kg / 51 – 120Ib
Length2 – 3m / 6.6 – 9.8ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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The name Saurornithoides, which means “bird-like lizard,” is pronounced “sore-OR-nith-OID-eez”. The name refers to the creature’s bird-like cranium and is derived from the Greek words saur, which means lizard, ornith, and eides, which means form. The type species of the troodontid maniraptoran carnivorous dinosaur genus Saurornithoides, which was named in 1924, is S. mongoliensis. It lived in Asia throughout the Cretaceous period from 83.6 million years ago until the Maastrichtian Age, and inhabited the deserts of Mongolia and Nebraska. 

Initially, just one or possibly two Saurornithoides specimens were recognized, closely grouped together in the same stratum of the Mongolian Djadochta Formation. A Chinese laborer discovered the fossils in 1923, where he found a single skull and jaw, together with surrounding vertebrae, a fragment of a pelvis, a hind leg, and a foot. A young S. mongoliensis specimen was described in 1993. Since Saurornithoides and other troodontids had well-ossified hindlimbs, it was likely that they needed little to no parental care as infants.

These Maniraptorans were petite, graceful dinosaurs that resembled birds, belonged to the Theropoda genus. According to the skeleton that has been found, Saurornithoides were between 2.3 and 3 meters long and weighed between 23 and 54 kilograms. These animals could move quickly on their hind legs and were predators with very good hearing and vision. The most distinctive aspect of this dinosaur is its cranium, which measured 7.4 inches across the midline, and they had raptorial arms and sickled claws. On the second toe of each foot, it had a large claw which was retractable and expanding. The dinosaur’s big eyes provided it with excellent depth perception and its huge eye sockets gave it both great night vision, and good vision in the light. It was swift and intelligent because of its long, low head and a relatively large brain.. 

It is believed that desert areas are the Saurornithoides’ optimal environment. It caught live prey, which would have included small animals, by hunting them with its long arms and hands.

Saurornitholestes

Saurornitholestes

Ferahgo the Assassin (Emily Willoughby, e.deinonychus@gmail.com) http://emilywilloughby.com/, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 75 million years ago
Weight:12kg / 30Ib
Length2m / 6ft
Diet:Carnivorous

Saurornitholestes (Saw-roar-nith-owe-less-teez) is a genus of dromaeosaurid dinosaur that lived in the Upper Campanian Stage during the Upper Cretaceous period around 75 million years ago in Alberta, Canada, North America. Other dromaeosaurids include the Velociraptor and Dromaeosaurus.

Saurornitholestes was a small, bipedal dinosaur who measured 6 feet (2 metres) in length and weighed 12 kilograms (30 pounds). Like other theropods in the family Dromaeosauridae, Saurornitholestes had a long, curved, blade-like claw on the second toe. It was similar to the Velociraptor as it had large sharp, fang-like teeth in the front of its jaws. Saurornitholestes was lightly built and had long legs and a beak. Some believe that Saurornitholestes may have been covered in feathers. This dinosaur had a relatively large brain.

Saurornitholestes was a carnivore and was perhaps a scavenger who fed up on carrion and small animals and reptiles such as lizards, frogs and early birds.

Scelidosaurus

Scelidosaurus_harrisonii

Jack Mayer Wood, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Early Jurassic, 191 million years ago
Weight:270kg / 595Ibs
Length4m / 13ft
Diet:Herbivorous

FURTHER READING AND STUDY

The name Scelidosaurus, which translates to “limb lizard,” is pronounced, “skel-EYE-doh-sore-us.” This genus of herbivorous armored ornithischian dinosaurs gets its name from the Greek words “skelis” (rib of meat) and “sauros” (lizard). Currently, Scelidosaurus harrisonii, named and described in 1861, is the only species of this genus that is known to exist. Approximately 191 million years ago, during the Sinemurian to Pliensbachian stages of the Early Jurassic Period, Scelidosaurus thrived. At that time, the Laurasian supercontinent was home to this genus. Its fossils have been discovered in the Dorset, England’s Charmouth Mudstone Formation close to Charmouth, and these fossils are renowned for their superb preservation. The first fossil evidence of Scelidosaurus was discovered and described in 1860 where a specimen of a  complete skeleton was found. The fossil includes pieces of the hind limbs, the knee joint, the top portions of the tibia and fibula, and the lower section of the femur. Only the snout tip, the neck base, the forelimbs, and the tail end are missing. Currently, Scelidosaurus is the only recognized dinosaur discovered in Ireland.

According to estimates, the Scelidosaurus was about 3.8–4 m long and weighed about 270 kg. Scelidosaurus had scutes, which are bony plates that run from the skull to the tail of these armored dinosaurs, and bony spikes on the skin. The specimen demonstrates that both of its forelimbs and hindlimbs were utilized for movement. They had premaxillae and front snout bones. Additionally, they shared a common rough center expansion with a tiny upper beak. The “epivomers,” unique plates that are located above the vomers and serve as the lid of the lizard-like dinosaur’s nasal cavity. The back of the skull has a fusion along with two sizable, upward-curving osteoderms that resemble horns. Only the angular portion of the lower jaw shows any exostosis, indicating that there is no connected osteoderm, and it had large, somewhat inward-curving teeth in its jaws which were well suited for shredding hard plant material. It had thick, hoof-like limbs that culminated in enormous clawed feet, and the low, stocky body was highest at the hips because the hind limbs were longer than the forelimbs. Scelidosaurus may have been able to move faster than many of the quadrupedal dinosaurs, according to some paleontologists. Others contend that it was a lumbering, sluggish creature that relied on its massively armored body to stave off predators. 

Its range is primarily constrained to regions bordering historic rivers and streams. They would saunter around in search of food in the lakes, swamps, and highly vegetated floodplains that were covered in forest, with the low-growing, shrubby plant life that flourished in the early Jurassic period made up its diet. It was thought by paleontologists to have been predominantly a land-dwelling animal that foraged near streams. Due to a limited range of motion in their jaw joint, they could only move their jaws vertically, Scelidosaurus consumed food by squeezing it between the inner and outer surfaces of its upper and lower teeth in an exact but uncomplicated up-and-down jaw movement. Actually, there was no need for the teeth to come into contact.

Scutellosaurus

Scutellosaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Early Jurassic, 196 million years ago
Weight:10kg / 22Ibs
Length1.2m / 3.9ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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In reference to its thick armor, Scutellosaurus is pronounced “skoo-tell-oh-sore-us,” which translates to “little shield lizard.” The Latin word “scutellum,” which means “small shield,” and the Greek word “sauros,” which means “lizard,” are combined to form the genus name. A genus of thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaurs is called Scutellosaurus. S. “lawleri” and is a type species that was named and described in 1981, and it is classed in the Thyreophora, the armoured dinosaurs.  Scutellosaurus lived approximately 196 million years ago, in the early Jurassic Period, in what is now Arizona, USA.

The first Scutellosaurus fossils, which included a nearly complete skeleton, were found in Arizona’s Kayenta Formation in 1971. The holotype specimen of Scutellosaurus lawleri was discovered on Navajo Nation territory in Coconino County, Arizona, in the West Moenkopi Plateau location in the Silty Facies Member of the Kayenta Formation. In addition to partially preserved premaxillae with teeth, a right maxilla with seven teeth, a left maxilla with five teeth, a left dentary with 18 teeth, a right dentary with 10 teeth, additional skull and skeletal fragments, various pedes bones, including a possible distal tarsal bone, and more than 300 osteoderms were found.

Scutellosaurus was a little, light-built, ground-dwelling herbivore that was 10 kilograms in weight, about 1.2 meters long, and 50 cm tall at the hips. Scutellosaurus is the only known bipedal thyreophoran, and it may have been able to walk on its hind legs. Lengthy arms and a tail that was unusually long suggested that it browsed on all fours to balance the weight of the armored body. There were a large number of scutes that ran from its neck all the way down to its tail, and it had up to five  of these formed parallel rows on each side. The shields varied in shape, with some being flat and others having pits and providing defense against larger, carnivorous dinosaurs. With several wide incisors and a row of fluted, leaf-shaped Scutellosaurus teeth, the 3.5 in (9 cm) long skull appears to have been designed for plant-eating. It was also a highly rapid runner to get away from predators as quickly as possible. It would most likely have been restricted to intuitive reflexes due to the brain’s limited area in the heavily reinforced armored skull. It may have been able to learn from experience despite having a tiny brain, which led to the dinosaur becoming unpredictable and hostile.

Dinosaurs belonging to the Thyreophoran suborder were diverse and important terrestrial herbivores. It might have swallowed its food entire because it lacked cheeks to store food and had teeth designed like leaves to tear leaves.

Secernosaurus

Image source: cisiopurple, deviantart.com

Type:Ornithopod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 71 – 65 million years ago
Weight:2,200kg
Length3m / 9.8ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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Secernosaurus is a genus of herbivorous hadrosaur, a dinosaur with a duck-bill, and is pronounced “see-ser-noh-sore-us,” which means “separated lizard,” and belongs to the tribe of Kritosaurini and the Hadrosauridae family. The name of the genus, which refers to the geographic separation of the species from Laurasian hadrosaurs, is derived from the Latin verb scern, which means to sever or divide.  Secernosaurus koerneri, the type species, was first reported in 1979, and a different name, Kritosaurus australis, started to be used as a binomial name. 

The dinosaur lived between 100.5 and 66 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous epoch. Several regions of South America are claimed to have been home to the dinosaur during the Mesozoic Era, and a land bridge that briefly connected North and South America during the Late Cretaceous and permitted biotic exchange between the two continents has been hypothesised to have allowed the progenitors of Secernosaurus to migrate into South America. As of right now, just two specimens of these dinosaurs have been found: a Secernosaurus skeleton from Argentina’s Los Alamitos Formation and a Secernosaurus skeleton from the Lago Colhue Huapi Formation. The incomplete skeleton of Secernosaurus koerneri that serves as the holotype was discovered in 1923, and was the earliest hadrosaurid to be discovered in South America.

Secernosaurus is thought to have measured 3 metres in length, 1.5 metres in height, and 1814 kg in weight. The Secernosaurus had a ridge of bone between its eyes and a flattened head with a duckbill. The snout appeared to have a characteristic “Roman nose,” and the species had hundreds of closely spaced grinding teeth that allowed it to effortlessly devour the tough vegetation. A number of Kritosaurus species had long, hefty tails that helped them balance as they walked on two legs, according to fossil evidence. It had a pubic bone that was positioned rearward in the pelvis as well as a predentary bone. Adults were thought to walk on four legs, while hatchlings move around on two, and the short front legs were rarely utilised for walking. 

The dinosaur Secernosaurus must have lived in a variety of environments, including plains, deserts, mountains, and coastal regions. Being a herbivore, the Secernosaurus typically grazed on plants like horsetail that were close to the ground as opposed to eating branches and trees. Additionally, studies showed that the diet mostly included of leaves and lacked heavy components like twigs and stems.

Segisaurus

Segisaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Mid Jurassic, 195 – 180 million years ago
Weight:4 – 7kg / 8.8 – 15.2Ibs
Length1m / 3.3ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Segisaurus, often known as the “Segi [Canyon] lizard,” is a genus of small coelophysid theropod carnivorous dinosaurs. Its name is pronounced, “sayg-ee-sore-us.” The name “Segisaurus” refers to a Segi reptileand the location from where this dinosaur was discovered. The type species, Segisaurus halli, was identified and described in 1936, it lived in North America during the Jurassic era, and was present between the Pliensbachian to 174.1 million years ago.  

The incomplete skeleton was found buried in a layer of Early Jurassic sediment known as the Navajo Sandstone in Arizona’s Segi Canyon in 1933. Segisaurus only has a sparse collection of vertebrae, limb bones, and fragments of the shoulders and hips as known remains. Due to the position in which the dinosaur’s remains were found, experts compared the specimen of Segisaurus to a “sitting hen” when it was first found, and there have been no other specimens found besides the first discovery of Segisaurus.

According to estimates, the Segisaurus was about the size of a goose with a long tail, and is thought to have measured 1 meter in length, 1.5 meters in height, and weighed between 4 to 7 kilograms. The dinosaur’s body was shaped like a bird, and it had a long, flexible neck and a strong body. The Segisaurus is thought to have had three toes and legs that were longer than their bodies. Segisaurus traits must have featured long tails and forearms in addition to long legs. Scientists discovered clavicles in the bone of Segisaurus and its collarbone was not unlike that of a bird, and because Segisaurus had hollow bones rather than solid ones, researchers think it was more closely linked to Procompsognathus. It was an agile dinosaur that could move fast, readily, and lightweight since it was an actively moving primitive bipedal theropod. It would have been able to change directions quickly as it pursued its prey.

The Segisaurus would have most likely favored dry, sandy areas. The Segisaurus was a swift animal that had been an insectivore in the past, but over time, it has also been hypothesised that this dinosaur may have also consumed meat alternatives. As a result, it is assumed that the major diet of the Segisaurus consisted of insects and perhaps small animals sometimes, and it also occasionally went scavenging for small animals. Segisaurus halli’s species must have vanished during the Toarcian period of the Jurassic.

Segnosaurus

Segnosaurus

PaleoNeolitic, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 102 – 86 million years ago
Weight:1,300kg
Length6 – 7m / 20 – 23ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Therizinosaurid herbivorous dinosaurs are classified in the genus Segnosaurus, which is pronounced “SEG-no-SORE-us” and means “slow lizard.” The generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek word sauros meaning “lizard” and the Latin word segnis, which means “slow”. It is known that Segnosaurus galbinensis, which was identified in 1979, is the type species for the genus, and was named after the Galbin area of the Gobi Desert. It lived around 90 million years ago, during the late Cretaceous period, and these Theropod dinosaurs were known to have lived from the middle, to the upper age and inhabited Asia, notably Mongolia and China.

During an expedition in southeast Mongolia in 1979, this dinosaur was first found and described. The Baynshirenskaya Svita, a geological deposit composed of grey claystones, gravel, and grey sands, is a horizon or deposit where the bones were discovered in relatively loose sediments. The first fossil proof of Segnosaurus came in the form of skeletal fragments, which included a pelvic girdle, a lower jaw, pieces of the backbone, and broken bones from the forelimbs and hind limbs. In Mongolia so far, four Segnosaurus fragmentary skeletons have been discovered.

It was a big, wide-bodied dinosaur that ranged in size from about 4.6 to 9 meters in length and as high as 3 meters. It weighed between 1,179 and 3,262 kg. It displayed an uncommon fusion of ornithischians, theropods, and prosauropod characteristics. Although it resembled the Erlikosaurus quite a bit, it did not have the latter’s wide cheeks, walked on two legs and was bipedal. The neck was long and slender, and the head was small with a horny beak at the tips of the jaws. Its wide pelvis, as opposed to the theropod‘s narrow one, gave it a broad back and a “pot belly.” Three-toed feet with clawed fingers and toes were one of the characteristics of this dinosaur. The 48 mandibular teeth on the dinosaur showed a minor edge recurvature. In addition, compared to the Erlikosaurus, the dinosaur’s lower jaw was massive yet low, and the dentary shelf extended backward for half the length of the lower jaw, starting at the fourteenth dentary tooth. Therizinosaurs had a complexly shaped tooth-bearing bone called the dentary, which was located on the top exterior of the lower jaw. Most of the time, they most likely walked on all four legs, and as its name implies, segnosaurians were probably not good runners. Dinosaurs did not reproduce at the same location repeatedly, according to eggs discovered in a single stratigraphic layer. When compared to the typical tennis ball-shaped eggs of other dinosaurs, Segnosaurus eggs were similar to footballs and could reach lengths of 48 cm. Eight eggs were reported to be laid in each of the female dinosaur’s 17 recorded egg batches. Dinosaur hatchlings were precocial, able to move from birth because there weren’t believed to be any adults affiliated with the nest, and as a result, they were able to eat on their own.

The habitat of these included marshes, coastal swamps, and wet woods. The most hospitable environment for Segnosaurus was wetlands. Although other traits hint that Segnosaurus was a carnivore and may have eaten fish, its teeth and beak suggest that it was able to efficiently browse on low-growing vegetation. It might have developed a keen beak to snag slick prey. Additionally, if it had webbed feet, it would have been a proficient swimmer with the ability to take advantage of aquatic resources.

Shamosaurus

Image Source: dinopedia.fandom.com

Type:Armoured
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 121 – 99 million years ago
Weight:2,000kg
Length5m / 16.4ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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Shamosaurus, which is pronounced “shah-maw-sore-us” and means “desert lizard,” is a basal ankylosaurid extinct genus of herbivorous dinosaurs. The generic name is taken from the Chinese term for the Gobi, Mandarin sha mo, which means “sand desert.” Shamosaurus scutatus, the type species, was named and first described in 1983. Latin for “protected by a shield” is the species name, which refers to the body armor. It inhabited Asia, more specifically Mongolia and China, during the lower Cretaceous period, during the Aptian and Albian stage roughly 100.5 million years ago. 

Ankylosaurid skeleton was found in 1977 during the fossil excavation conducted by a Soviet-Mongolian expedition. The Charmin-Us site in Dornogovi Province is where the fossils were discovered. The fossils discovered in the Dzunbain Formation during the Aptian-Albian stage, around 115 million years ago, provide information about the holotype specimens. The holotype featured an armored partial postcranial, lower jaws, and a skull. In 1983, only the skull was described, and Ankylosaurs had never before been discovered in Mongolia, China.

The Shamosaurus measured 4.9 meters in length and weighed roughly 2000 kilograms. The osteoderms on the roof of the skull of the medium-sized dinosaur Shamosaurus are not extremely noticeable or differentiated as individual head tiles. The desert lizard has small, slightly rounded squamosal horns on its skull, and the Shamosaurus had a snout-shaped beak at the front of its mouth where the top beak was pointed and toothless, and it had a flat skull. Two cervical half-rings in the dinosaur’s armour served as the neck’s protection. This species was quite swift since it was quadrupedal, although not nearly as quick as its predators, but was quick enough to maneuver around them. As a sauropod, this species was very amiable and non-aggressive. These dinosaurs were protected from the majority of larger predators by their armour. 

Being a herbivore, the Shamosaurus lived in places with lots of flora, and since they were short, they looked for regions with smaller bushes and trees so they could reach. They stayed in densely vegetated places with plenty of bushes and vegetation. Plants and fruits that can be found in forests and woodlands made up the Shamosaurus diet.

Shanag

Shanag

Danny Cicchetti, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 130 million years ago
Weight:5kg
Length1.5m / 11ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Shanag, which is pronounced “sha-nag,” is a genus of microraptorine dromaeosaurid theropod carnivorous dinosaurs. It was named after the dancers at the Buddhist Tsam festival, the dancers wearing black hats in the Buddhist Cham dance are referred to by the general name. Shanag’s S. ashile type species was identified and reported in 2007 and the species name alludes to the ancient name for the levels where Shanag was discovered, the Ashile Formation. It inhabited Asia’s terrestrial areas throughout the Cretaceous period, between the Lower Cretaceous Epoch through to 100.5 million years ago.

The first fossil was found in the ösh Formation, where only a fragmentary skull and jaw specimen was found there. The holotype is about 6 centimeters long, with both jaws surviving intact, including a nearly full maxilla carrying teeth, a right dentary bearing teeth, and a connected incomplete splenial.

Shanag was thought to have been about 1.5 m long and 5 kg in weight. Shanag has a blend of dromaeosaurid, troodontid, and basic avian characteristics. It was a swift, feathery carnivore of small to medium size, and it had somewhat binocular eyesight, a relatively big cranium, sharp teeth, a small snout, and forward-facing eyes. Its trunk was relatively shallow and had an S-shaped neck, and its second toe had a sizable claw that was recurved. It has a long, slender tail, and there’s a chance that the theropod dinosaur had distinctive colouring. The dinosaur’s jaw fragments provided the necessary knowledge. Dentary and maxillary articulation were complete. The dentary teeth are also smaller and much closer together than the maxillary teeth, and Shanag was thought to have reproduced through oviparous means. 

The Shanag most likely resided in terrestrial environments as their habitat range, and most likely ate fish, insects, small animals, and was a scavenger as well. They would leap onto their victim, then crush it under the weight of their bodies before grabbing it with their claws. 

Shantungosaurus

Shantungosaurus

w:user:Debivort, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Ornithopod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 178 – 74 million years ago
Weight:16,000kg
Length14.7m / 48ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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The name of the dinosaur is pronounced “shan-TUN-go-sore-us.” which is a genus of extremely large saurolophine hadrosaurid herbivorous dinosaurs. Its name translates to “Shandong lizard.” Shantungosaurus giganteus is the only species in its genus and is one of the largest known non-sauropod dinosaurs. It existed from the Upper Cretaceous Epoch to 66 million years ago, and resided in Asia. Middle to late Campanian in age, the stratigraphic interval of Shantungosaurus spans from the top of the Xingezhuang Formation to the middle of the Hongtuya Formation, and was the country’s first discovery of a huge mounted Ornithischia. 

When Shantungosaurus’s remains were discovered for the first time in 1973, they were discovered along with at least five distinct dinosaurs’ bones. The largest of these composites, which included the bones of several individuals, produced a hadrosaurid dinosaur, even though none of these were entire skeletons. In Shandong, China, the remains of multiple individuals, including skull bones, limb bones, and vertebrae, were discovered.

The size of Shantungosaurus suggests that it was the largest hadrosaur known. It measured 15 meters in length and 10 meters in height, with an estimated weight of 16329.3 kilograms. The Shantungosaurus stood out from the other dinosaurs in its genus due to its very unusual traits, and the skin of Shantungosaurus was rough and thick. Although it had no teeth in its beak, like all hadrosaurs, it had 1,500 or so tiny biting teeth in its jaws, which allowed it to consume any nearby vegetation. It’s possible that a huge hole close to its nostrils was covered by a loose, flashy flap that could be inflated to create noises, attract females, and protect its boundaries. With a huge cranium and long bones, their remains also imply that it was among the largest known genus. It had an exceptionally long tail, which was probably there to balance out the animal’s heavy hips and body. Due to its four-pedal digit ligaments, foot-like tendons linked at opposing ends from each ankle bone, it was also capable of existing on land and in the water. These extinct creatures were thought to be able to run up to 28 mph by scientists, and this hadrosaur was probably frequently seen attacking anything in sight since they were so vicious and could easily kill animals up to 60 times their size. The average lifespan of these largest known dinosaurs has been estimated by experts to be between 45 and 50 years.

The Shantungosaurus could search for food in a variety of environments, including tall trees. The Shantungosaurus was a herbivore, and its broad mouth suggests it consumed all the flora that came within reach of its powerful jaws, and its fossilised characteristics and remnants show signs of plant and tree feeding. 

Shunosaurus

Shunosaurus

User:Smokeybjb (Edits by User:Paleocolour), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Sauropod
Lived:Mid Jurassic, 170 – 160 million years ago
Weight:3,000kg
Length11m / 36ft
Diet:Herbivorous

Shunosaurus measured 40 feet (11 metres) in length and weighed around 19 tons. It is the only sauropod known that had a bony club at the end of its tail, formed by enlarged vertebrae. This small tail club had two small spines on it and was probably used for defence to swipe away predators.

Shunosaurus was a quadrupedal dinosaur and walked on all 4 of its trunk-like legs. Its body was huge and bulky and it had a long neck, a long tail and a short deep skull. Its front and hind legs were similar in length, making its back relatively level with the ground.

Shunosaurus was a herbivore and ate plant material. It would have had to eat a huge amount to sustain its large size, although it was not as huge as other giants such as Argentinosaurus and Diplodocus.

Shuvuuia

Shuvuuia

FunkMonk (Michael B. H.), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 75 – 81 million years ago
Weight:2kg / 4.4Ibs
Length60cm / 36ft
Diet:Omnivorous

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A group of dinosaurs known as Shuvuuia, whose name is pronounced “shu-voo-ee-ah” and meaning “bird,” are velociraptor theropods that resembled birds. The Mongolian word “shuvuu,” which means “bird,” is where the name Shuvuuia comes from. Shuvuuia deserti, sometimes known as the “desert bird,” is the type species, and it belongs to the alvarezsaurus group, which developed nocturnal vision quite early in its evolutionary history. It existed throughout the Cretaceous period and resided in Africa, Mongolia, China, and other regions of Asia. It was present around 70 million years ago, between the Campanian and Maastrichtian ages.

In 1987, when paleontologists discovered the remains of a bipedal dinosaur resembling Velociraptor, which had already been discovered in the Gobi Desert, the Shuvuuia narrative began. Then, in 1992, another expedition team unearthed additional animal bones, including two skulls, from which Shuvuuia is known from a well-preserved skull and postcranium.

The Shuvuuia was roughly the size of a chicken, and measured about 2 feet long by 0.7 feet high, and weighed roughly 2.5 kg. Its skull was narrow like that of an anteater or crocodile, but shorter, and it had two little arms with spikes on them for defense against prey like insects. It also had four long legs. Like its long legs, the Shuvuuia’s arms were long and lean, it largely used its forelimbs for movement and for hunting, and possessed forelimbs that resembled feathers and a somewhat rounded cranium. The ability of Shuvuia’s skull to conduct pyrokinesis, or the ability to move its upper jaw independently of its braincase, makes it unique among non-avian theropods. The Shuvuuia skeletal system possessed specialised, small features that resembled claws at the tips of the fingers that were likely utilised for digging. The Shuvuuia hand had three medium-length fingers that were utilized for digging, its hollow jaw contained pointed teeth for capturing insects. Among most related animals, their hearing sense is regarded as one of the best, and they could see well at night. This species’ enormous lagena hints that Shuvuuia would have hunted in total darkness. Its eye was a particular light-capture device because of the extremely broad scleral ring that indicated an extremely big pupil size. Around 360 bones are thought to be present in these Mongolian birds, and in addition to these, they had powerful teeth in their jaws, which improved their capacity for hunting. They had a life expectancy of about 40 years and were herd animals. They were violent and weedy animals that would thrive in hot deserts like the Sahara as a result of their vicious competition for territory.

Theropod dinosaurs inhabited the present-day grass plains, wooded areas with nearby trees, and water sources. Most likely an insectivore, Shuvuuia utilised its claws to rip into termite mounds or tree bark in search of insects. Shuvuuia would have hunted at night, using its hearing and vision to locate tiny mammals and insects as prey. It would then use its long legs to quickly get the prey to the ground and its powerful forelimbs to pry the prey free from tunnels or thorny plants.

Silvisaurus

Silvisaurus

ABelov2014 (https://abelov2014.deviantart.com/), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 121 – 112 million years ago
Weight:1,000 – 3,000kgs
Length4m / 13ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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The extinct genus of nodosaurid ankylosaurs, also known as “forest lizards,” was named Silvisaurus and is pronounced, “sil-vi-sore-us.” The word “lizard” and the Latin word “silva,” which relate to the animal’s likely habitat in a densely forested area, are combined to form the genus name. In 1961, the naming and description of the type species Silvisaurus condrayi were given. The species is named in honour of Condray, who found the fossils. It lived during the Cretaceous era and frequented North American woodlands, between 113 million and 66 million years ago. 

The holotype, which is a partial skeleton with a skull, was discovered in exposures of the Dakota Formation’s Terracota Clay Member in Kansas. A portion of the left pubis, the lower end of the right femur, a toe phalanx, three tail vertebrae, eight neck vertebrae, ten dorsal vertebrae, a sacrum with six sacral vertebrae, the mandible, and eight tail vertebrae are all present. Disarticulated spikes and plates from the body armour were also found. Due to the bones’ exposure at the bottom of a dry riverbed, weathering, and cow trampling, the fossil was in poor condition, some components were only visible as natural casts or impressions.

The size and weight of Silvisaurus were approximately 3 meters long and 1,000–3,000 kg. Their skull measured 9.8 inches in width by 13 inches in length. The skull of Silvisaurus has large openings which may have been passaged for resonating loud vocalizations. A secondary palate, a bony structure that separates the nasal cavity from the mouth cavity, was also present in them. Its upper jaw featured at least 8 to 9 teeth, and it had at least 25 pairs of teeth overall. The protrusion on the underside of the braincase known as the basal tubera was fatty and protruding. This dinosaur was a prehistoric nodosaur based on the presence of its dentary structure, and along with having plates or bony spines on the rear of the shoulder and tail, it also possessed spherical and rough osteoderms all over its body. It features armored plates and a pear-shaped skull. This species was quite swift since it was quadrupedal. Although not nearly as quick as predators, it was quick enough to manoeuvre around them. Together, they coexisted peacefully with sauropod dinosaurs, and were protected from most predators by their armour.

It was a warm-temperate forest creature, and the food of the Silvisaurus included vegetables and fruits that may be found in forested and woodland regions. As they were short, they looked for regions with smaller bushes and plants they could reach, and they used their snout-like beaks to eat.

Sinocalliopteryx

Sinocalliopteryx

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 124.6 million years ago
Weight:20kgs
Length2.37m / 7.78ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Sinocalliopteryx, which means “Chinese Beautiful Feather” and is pronounced “sie-no-kall-ee-op-ter-iks,” is a genus of carnivorous compsognathid theropod dinosaurs. The genus name comes from Sinae, which is Latin for the Chinese and Greek words kalos, which means “beautiful,” and pteryx, which means “feather.” Sinocalliopteryx gigas, the type species, was named and described in 2007. Sinocalliopteryx received its scientific name, gigas, which translates to “giant,” from its massive size as a “giant compsognathid.” It lived in the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation and it roamed the terrestrial parts of Asia, particularly China, 129.4 million years ago to the Aptian Age. 

The holotype was found in the Barremian-Aptian, Jianshangou Beds of the Yixian Formation in Hengdaozi, in Sihetun, Liaoning Province. The only known specimen of Sinocalliopteryx is a complete skeleton with surviving filamentous integumentary structures (also known as “protofeathers”). A dromaeosaurid (a small, swift-moving dinosaur that walked on two legs) leg fragment and a few gastroliths (stomach stones) were discovered in the animal’s abdomen. A Sinornithosaurus had a fragmentary leg bone discovered in its intestines. 

A big compsognathid, Sinocalliopteryx had a total length of roughly 2.3 m. and weigh around 20 kg. On its body, this dinosaur had protofeathers that measured 3.9 inches long. These feathers were once thought to have developed for insulating purposes. Sinosauropteryx had patterns, and because of its colours, it could blend in with the forest floor, and additionally, it’s thought that feathers helped animals hide from larger predators. The tail had chevrons and spines that were aggressively angled backward. It had an extended head with a pointed snout and an upper profile that was convex. Its jaw contained six sizable teeth, and this dinosaur had feathers on its feet, which are thought to have originated in Microraptors. These foot feathers imply that foot feathers predate maniraptoran dinosaurs in origin. Additionally, four stones thought to be gastroliths were discovered in the stomach’s abdominal chamber, carnivores typically swallow larger gastroliths than herbivores do, and they appear to be there to break down bones and tenderise flesh that has been swallowed. The Sinocalliopteryx was a little, swiftly moving dinosaur with long hands and two legs. Due of their nutritional needs and physical make-up, this large predator was also fluffy and thought to be highly strong and aggressive.

It is thought that this dinosaur lived primarily in trees and was an arboreal creature. This affinity for the environment would have made it easier for it to capture flying prey. It’s thought that because of its size, it didn’t prefer to eat smaller creatures, and these dinosaurs are thought to have hunted other animals rather than scavenging. 

Sinornithosaurus

Sinornithosaurus

GFDL, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 122 – 120 million years ago
Weight:3kgs
Length1.2m / 3.9ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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The name Sinornithosaurus, which translates to “Chinese bird lizard,” is used to describe a genus of feathered dromaeosaurid carnivorous dinosaurs. Latin and Greek words were combined to create the genus name, and they have this very famous name because of their ability to hunt down smaller reptiles and birds. They are a class of venomous dinosaurs. This genus’ type species, called Sinornithosaurus millenii, which translates to “millennium Chinese bird-lizard,” was first reported in 1999. It existed from 130 million years ago until the Aptian Age, and therefore was a Cretaceous period animal that resided on Asia’s continent.

They are regarded as the fifth non-avian species with feathers, and the original specimen was gathered in western Liaoning’s Sihetun location. It is estimated to be 124.5 million years old and was discovered in the Jianshangou beds of the Yixian Formation. The impressions of feathers that covered the entire body and formed the wings have been preserved on specimens of Sinornithosaurus.

The primordial trait of these dinosaurs is venom and despite the Sinornithosaurus’s relatively small size, the venom in its bite can in fact be fatal. With a length of around 90 centimeters and a weight of about three kilograms, Sinornithosaurus was one of the tiniest dromaeosaurids. This dinosaur had feathers covering its entire body and boomslang teeth that resembled snakes. Even with careful inspection, it is impossible to tell them apart because they have long feathers like birds. This venomous dinosaur had a long, fang-like jaw; its teeth are long and point down toward the outside. They caught prey with their feathers and stripped the feathers off of other smaller birds with the tip of their jaw. In that way, the dinosaur’s feathers were quite significant. The venom glands are located in a soft hollow beneath their mouth, and numerous pieces of evidence point to their propensity for leaping, and it is also considered that they both hunted and lived in groups. Their advantage in hunting animals or any form of snake is their poison.

This dinosaur thrived best in a warm, humid environment that was also home to numerous birds, snakes, and other smaller dinosaurs. As so many of its remains have been gathered from there, China is recognized as the location of this poisonous dinosaur’s primary habitat, and although anything smaller than them might be eaten by this dinosaur, birds were its primary prey. Due to this, they were quite simple to find, and they also consumed other prey, like smaller reptiles and other smaller dinosaurs.

Sinosauropteryx

Sinosauropteryx

No machine-readable author provided. Dinoguy2 assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 122 – 120 million years ago
Weight:0.55kgs / 1.21Ibs
Length1.07m / 3.51ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Sinosauropteryx, whose name is pronounced “sine-oh-sore-op-ter-iks” and means “Chinese lizard wing,” is a theropod dinosaur that is non-avian. S. prima is its type species, and China is where the name of the theropod species originated. Its name, which translates to “first Chinese dragon feather,” was given to this Chinese fossil in 1996, and was the first non-avian (or “non-bird”) dinosaur discovered with feathers. It is one of the oldest known land animals that lived on the planet between 122 and 125 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous period, and lived in Asia, particularly China, between the Hauterivian and Aptian eras.

Sinosauropteryx was the first and most primitive genus of dinosaurs identified having feather impressions preserved in fossil form. It was also the first dinosaur genus unearthed in the renowned Liaoning Province, and farmers in Liaoning Province’s Sihetun village ripped open a rock slab in 1994 and found Sinosauropteryx inside. They discovered the entire skeleton of an animal with a long tail and the size of a turkey. Three different Sinosauropteryx specimens, as well as several unlaid eggs, stomach contents, internal organs, and protofeathers or feather-like structures, were found in the Yixian Formation site.

A Sinosauropteryx measured up to 1.2 m in length, stood 30 cm tall, and weighed around 2.5 kg. The dinosaur’s extraordinarily long tail was its most distinctive characteristic. The longest among all theropods, its lengthy tail had 64 vertebrae, making it considerably longer than the rest of its body. The majority of scientists think that instead of aiding in flight, feathers helped with insulation, and these dinosaurs had two long legs and small arms with three fingers, including a big thumb. The thigh bones, on the other hand, were about the same length as the cranium, and the pelvic bones resembled lizards’ in structure. These dinosaurs had a set of pointed teeth and a distinctive bandit mask that gave them a contemporary raccoon appearance. The amount of internal muscle and skin tissue that is present in each skeleton segment is shown by the filaments that can be seen between the gaps. The Sinosauropteryx colour pattern may be seen in the well-preserved specimen, according to paleontologists, it was the first dinosaur with evidence of stripes and a pattern of “counter-shading,” which consisted of lighter colours below and dark upperparts. It probably had stripes of ginger and white shading, while the Sinosauropteryx embryo and its unlaid eggs are positioned in such a way that it is clear the females had two oviducts and laid their eggs in pairs. The eggs were around 1.4 in long and 1 in wide.

The habitat of the Sinosauropteryx included the continents of China and Europe. Sinosauropteryx prima likely consumed tiny animals as part of its diet because the specimen was preserved with the bones of a lizard (complete with skull) in its stomach. Three mammal jaws were discovered in the stomach region of another potential Sinosauropteryx specimen, indicating that the animal also consumed mammals as part of its diet

Sinovenator

Sinovenator

Conty, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous, 127 – 121 million years ago
Weight:2.5kg / 5.5Ibs
Length1m / 3.2ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Sinovenator (sien-oh-vee-nay-tor), which translates to “Chinese hunter” (due to their exceptional hunting skills) is a genus of troodontid carnivorous dinosaurs. The generic name was created by combining the Latin words Sinae, which stands for China, and Venator, which means “hunter.” The type species of this genus is Sinovenator changii, which bears Meemann Chang’s name in recognition of her contributions to its discovery. It colonized Asia throughout the Cretaceous period, and it inhabited the terrestrial regions of China in particular from the Barremian Age to 122.46 million years ago.

In China’s older (lower) Yixian Formation, which was a part of the Jehol biota, two fossils were discovered in 2002. The specimen is a disarticulated skeleton and fragmentary skull, while another specimen lacks the skull but contains joined bones. The fossils have been preserved three-dimensionally, not strongly compressed on a slab.

This dinosaur, which was about the size of a turkey, was an early troodontid, but it also shared traits with early dromaeosaurs and birds. The most noticeable of these was a pubis that was facing backward. It measured less than a metre in length, weighed around 2.5 kilos, and was roughly the size of a chicken. They had several characteristics with birds that we commonly observe, such as their small, bird-like ischium. Their third metatarsal was short and pinched near the top, and they had a highly distinctive shinbone that was slightly wide at the top. However little their incomplete skull reveals, they lack bulla points, and their front teeth were crowded together. Their skull and other remnants show that they were among the highest non-avian creatures and had strong senses, which helped them protect themselves from predators. They utilised their leg muscles effectively as they moved quickly, and their breeding habits resembled those of contemporary reptiles. Two eggs would be laid, and they would protect the young from larger dinosaurs. They left their mark on swift movement and evading predators and are renowned for being skilled hunters. The Sinovenator was known to inhabit tundras and grass plains, and it was capable of hunting smaller prey with ease.

Sinraptor

Sinraptor

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Mid Jurassic, 169 – 142 million years ago
Weight:3,900kg
Length11.5m / 37.7ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Sinraptor, which is pronounced “sien-rap-tor” and means “Chinese plunderer,” is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaurs called metriacanthosaurids. It was a Carnosaur as well and was described in 1994. The Latin prefix “Sino,” which means Chinese, and the word “raptor,” which means robber, combine to form the name Sinraptor. This genus has two species: S. dongi, which serves as the type species, and S. hepingensis. A palaeontologist named Dong Zhiming is honoured by the species name dongi. A second species, was originally named Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. It lived in Asia during the Jurassic era between the Oxfordian Age until 157.3 million years ago, and it was most prevalent in China’s deserts.

In the northwest Chinese desert in 1987, the Shishugou Formation yielded the Sinraptor holotype specimen. A variety of softly curving tooth drags or gouges, shallow, circular punctures, and one totally piercing lesion can all be seen on the skull specimen of the sinraptor dongi.

The Sinraptor was between 7.6 and 8.8 meters long, up to 10 feet (3 meters) tall, and weighed between 1,000 and 1,200 kg. They were among the largest members of the Metriacanthosauridae dinosaur family. There is evidence that it had a scaly body, and the dinosaur’s coat might be green, brown, or violet-blue in colour. The Sinraptor resembled a lizard quite a bit, although it was much bigger and had different colours. One of the fastest theropod dinosaurs is supposed to have been the terrestrial Sinraptor, which walked on two feet. It possessed a combative personality, especially when threatened and during the mating season. It is possible that Sinraptor preyed on medium-sized dinosaurs by utilizing its blade-like teeth to inflict huge, lethal wounds because its dentition was extremely similar to that of Allosaurus. The dinosaur hunted in trios and in pairs but was mostly observed in pairs during the breeding season. 

The Sinraptor was a roving creature that foraged and hunted in open grasslands, deserts, or beaches, although it spent the night in the adjacent trees. The Sinraptor dinosaur ate meat, and its tooth had a blade-like appearance. The species used its claws and fangs to drag down other species as prey.

Sonidosaurus

Sonidosaurus

Machairo, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Sauropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 89 – 65 million years ago
Weight:3,000kg
Length9m / 30ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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Sonidosaurus, which is pronounced “soh-nid-oh-sore-us” and translates to “Sonid Lizard,” is a genus of herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs that were titanosaurs. Sonid, a large geographic region that encompasses the type site, served as the inspiration for the genus name. Sonidosaurus saihangaobiensis, the type species, was first described in 2006. It colonised Asia throughout the Cretaceous period, and during its existence, which lasted from 83.5 million years ago to the Maastrichtian Age, it lived in the terrestrial regions of China and Mongolia.

Its fossils have been discovered in Mongolia (China). A set of postcrania make up the type specimen, and it was discovered in a Campanian/Campanian fluvial sandstone in the Iren Dabasu Formation of China’s Saihangaobi, Sonid Zuoqi. The five dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebra, caudal vertebra, ribs, chevron, partial left pubis, both ischia, partial left, and right ilia are all present in the fossil record. 

It was a little sauropod, measuring only 9 meters. Sonidosaurus had a smaller head than most sauropods. It was a plant-eating dinosaur with very small, slightly spatulate, peg- or pencil-shaped teeth. It featured a whip-like tail, though not as long as in diplodocids, and a long neck that was average in length for sauropods. Longer and more robust than the hind limbs were the forelimbs, other than that, little was known about them. They occasionally laid their tails on the ground and may have done so to defend themselves, and Sauropods’ deep thorax is a coping mechanism for weight-bearing issues on land. They were entirely terrestrial animals. These creatures lacked any characteristics indicative of an aquatic or amphibious lifestyle. After hatching, these species’ young were independent, active, and capable of a larger range of manoeuvres than adult individuals of their species.

They were voracious eaters that ate their food without chewing, and they saved energy by keeping their bodies stationary as they swung their large necks over wide areas like ancient lawn mowers. Preferably they were ground-dwelling herbivores. Conifers, which dominated the plant kingdom when the huge sauropods flourished, were likely to be their primary source of food. In addition to blooming plants, secondary food sources may have included gingkos, seed ferns, cycads, Bennett Italian ferns, club mosses, and horsetails.

Spinosaurus

Spinosaurus

derivative work: Dinoguy2 (talk)Spinosaurus_BW.jpg: ArthurWeasley, CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 99 – 93.5 million years ago
Weight:7,000 – 9,000kg
Length16 – 18m / 52 – 59ft
Diet:Carnivorous

Spinosaurus was instantly recognisable with a beautiful sail that went down the length of its back. Brightly coloured to attract mates or frighten its rivals, Spinosaurus was a beautiful but also a highly effective predator.

Spinosaurus was from a family of dinosaurs called Spinosaurids. This unusual family of dinosaurs all had tall spines or sails along their backs and included the terrifying Spinosaurus.

Spinosaurus was a Theropod, carnivorous, and as it lived comfortably on both land and water scientists believe it would have eaten both water and land prey. Spinosaurus was such a large predator it would have been able to tackle anything it wanted. However, scientists believe that Spinosaurus would have eaten more aquatic prey. Around 110 million years ago there would have been giant sea turtles, large fish such as the Mawsonia and perhaps even small plesiosaurs.

Spinosaurus lived in North Africa, with bones of this dinosaur found in Egypt and Niger. Spinosaurus lived around 110 million years ago in the Cretaceous period.

 

Staurikosaurus

Staurikosaurus

ДиБгд, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Late Triassic, 225 million years ago
Weight:30kg / 30Ibs
Length2.25m / 7.5ft
Diet:Carnivorous

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Staurikosaurus, whose name is pronounced “stor-ik-oh-sore-us,” belongs to the herrerasaurid theropod dinosaur family. Given that the Greek word “saurus” means “lizard,” the name Staurikosaurus translates to “Southern Cross Lizard” after the star constellation that can be seen from the Southern Hemisphere. The name Staurikosaurus pricei, which translates to “Prince’s Southern Cross Lizard,” was given to the type species in honor of the paleontologist. Staurikosaurus lived around 225 million years ago, during the Late Triassic period. It lived in what is now Brazil, South America.

The Santa Maria Formation Paleontological Site Jazigo Cinco in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, yielded the first known specimen of Staurikosaurus. In mid-Carnian strata, Staurikosaurus was discovered. Dinosaurs in the Southern Hemisphere were exceptional at the time Staurikosaurus was first described in 1970. When scientists initially came upon this huge species in 1955, they were little more than vertebral fragments, and when the Staurikosaurus was first discovered, it had two peculiar Staurikosaurus fingers and one curved thumb.

The large ornithischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus had bipedal legs and was around 2.1 meters long, 80 centimeters tall, and 30 kg or so in weight. Given that its tooth morphology indicates both grazing and browsing habits, it may have been omnivorous. Its body is relatively little compared to the size of its head, making up roughly half of the overall length, and it has a really long neck. The enormously long tail and thick, strong arms for standing upright while moving about in quest of food or treats nearby make up the rest of this lizard dinosaur’s body. It possessed four legs, claws, and fangs that were similarly sharp. Additionally, the distance between their eyes, as observed in the fossilised remains, was similar to that of most modern reptiles, and they were not particularly intelligent since they had very small brains. There were about 250 bones in these lizard dinosaurs and it is estimated that it might have run at a speed of 25–30 mph. The armoured theropod Staurikosaurus has spikes on its spine and a clubbed tail that it used to fend off predators. They most likely had several partners and were therefore polygamous.

They inhabited the plains and areas close to water because they enjoyed fishing. They may also have been found in forests, where a broader range of smaller creatures, such as lizards, amphibians, and insects, could be found for them to feed on. 

Stegoceras

Stegoceras

GFDL, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Ornithopod
Lived:Late Cretaceous, 77.5 – 74 million years ago
Weight:10 – 40kg / 22 to 88Ibs
Length2 – 2.5m / 6.6 – 8.2ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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The name Stegoceras, which means “roof horn” and is pronounced “STEG-oh-SEH-rass,” refers to a genus of herbivorous pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs with dome-shaped heads. It was a model pachycephalosaur that belonged to the ornithischians. Greek words stegè, which means “roof,” and keras, which means “horn,” combine to form the generic name Stegoceras. Along with S. novomexicanum species, S. validum is this genus type species. Latin for “strong” may have been used to describe the thick skull-roof when the specific name validus was given to the species in 1902. 

It colonized North America during the Cretaceous period, and it lived in the North American terrestrial ecosystems between 83.6 million years ago through the Maastrichtian Age, specifically in New Mexico, Alberta, and Canada. In the Red Deer River area of Alberta, Canada, and the Belly River Group is where the first fossils of Stegoceras were discovered. Only one complete skull and a small number of other bones from the Stegoceras validum species were found. Of the other closely related Stegoceras dinosaur species, Stegoceras novomexicanum, a partial head, and a few bones were discovered. 

The Stegoceras was a little, bipedal dinosaur about the size of a modern goat, and was 1.22 m in height and 2.13 m in length, and it weighed about 55 kg. The lateral view of the Stegoceras’ skull revealed an approximately triangular form. It had a short snout and a smooth, broad, thick cranium on top that looked like domes. A thick shelf or ridge protruded from the back of the skull or head, and there was a thick ridge on the brow above the eyes. In males, the skull was 3–4 inches thick; in females and young animals, it was thinner. The majority of the skulls possessed numerous rows of knobby nodes, tiny protrusions, or spherical outgrowths. The largest horns lined up to form a shelf-like projection on the back of the dinosaur’s head, giving the impression that it had one, and the teeth of the Stegoceras were distinct and positioned in sockets. Along the jaw’s edge, the little teeth were arranged in rows and at an angle. In young animals, the skull domes are flat; but, as dinosaurs became older, they began to expand into domes. The Stegoceras dinosaur had a large pelvic area, a rigid vertebral column, and a tail. The tail was 3–4 feet long, about half as long as the body, and their natural defense tendencies were to flee from predators or whenever they were threatened, and they were capable of running at about 15 mph. Sexual dimorphism is present in this dinosaur species, and it is strikingly distinct. The males had a thicker dome on their skulls and were bigger and heavier. Additionally, the females’ horns and skull knobs were smaller. Researchers came to the conclusion that Stegoceras engaged in the head- or flank-butting combat after evaluating the damage on its fossilized skeleton. Like other dinosaurs, these ones likely had a set breeding season and deposited eggs. 

It has been said that marshy rivers, floodplains, and coastal plains make up the Stegoceras’ habitat. They likely consumed plants, fruits, seeds, and insects because they were herbivores and lived in locations with a good density of flora. 

Stegosaurus

Stegosaurus

DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS), CC BY 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Late Jurassic 150 – 145 million years ago
Weight:3,000kg
Length7 – 9m / 23 – 30 – ft
Diet:Herbivorous

Stegosaurus (steg-oh-saw-rus) from Greek stegos (στέγος), which means roof, and sauros (σαῦρος), which means lizard – is without doubt one of the most recognisable dinosaurs.

With its beautiful and rather large plates along its back make it instantly recognisable all over the world. 

Stegosaurus is the largest and most famous member of the stegosaur family and would have been an incredible sight to see roaming the open plains of what is now North America in the late Jurassic Period 150 million years ago.

The types of plants that were around at the time include cycads, ferns and horsetails were Stegosaurus’ diet. Stegosaurus may have also eaten the occasional conifer tree saplings, but we’ll never be 100% sure.

Unfortunately, Stegosaurus wasn’t the smartest dinosaur in the world. Stegosaurus probably had the smallest brain out of any dinosaur that’s ever been discovered. Stegosaurus’ brain was around five centimetres long which is roughly the size of a walnut. Experts are still really puzzled as to why such a large animal had such a small brain.

Stegosaurus had incredibly strong back legs, which were nearly twice as long as its front legs. Its flat feet had three big toes and one tiny one designed for carrying weight. Stegosaurus was not built for speed and was probably comparable to a modern day an armoured tank, slow but very powerful.

A small marginocephallian dinosaur genus called Stenopelix, pronounced “ste-nop-e-liks”—which means “narrow pelvis”, may have been a basic ceratopsian. Stenos, which means “narrow,” and pelyx, which means “pelvis,” are the origins of the generic name. The type species of this genus, S. valdensis, was identified in 1857. The Wealden Formation is referenced in the species name, and they were the earliest members of the ceratopsian group of dinosaurs. It colonised Europe throughout the Cretaceous period, and it lived between the Berriasian Age and 139.8 million years ago, and it is known to have lived in Germany today.

A small dinosaur fossil was discovered in 1855 at a sandstone quarry on the Harrl, not far from Bückeburg. Two sets of hollow imprints were left on the plate and counterplate by the majority of its bones, which were in poor condition. To make it easier to observe the material, the two plates are not entirely overlapped and made of latex. The Obernkirchen Sandstein Formation holotype is made of of the imprints of a nearly complete skeleton that is missing the skull and neck. 

Their weight was estimated to be 10 kg, and the length was around 59 in. The femur’s length was estimated to be about 5.5 inches. The bony shelf or edge at the back of the skull, which it utilised to exhibit or entice mates, was one of its distinguishing features. They were mainly herbivores, and their gastroliths helped them break down tough plant material. These dinosaurs walked on two legs or were bipedal, and several pelvic features can be used to identify the species. The ilium’s shaft portion uniformly taper down to a rounded point. The middle of the ischium’s shaft is where it is thickest and may be seen. Unfortunately, no one is entirely sure how far along the beak and neck frill had developed because the skull was not preserved; in fact, the identification of Stenopelix as a ceratopsian dinosaur was based on research into the hips’ structure. They were thought to be herbivorous, therefore plant materials were among the potential food sources for their diet.

Struthiomimus

Struthiomimus

Credit to en:user:Ballista. Taken from the english wikipedia, uploaded here with the same license., CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Small theropod
Lived:Late Cretaceous 74 – 76 million years ago
Weight:150kg / 330Ibs
Length4m / 13.1ft
Diet:Omnivorous

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The name Struthiomimus, which means “ostrich mimic,” refers to a genus of herbivorous ornithomimid dinosaurs. The Greek words stroutheios, which means “of the ostrich,” and mimos, which means “mimic” or “imitator,” are combined to form the genus name. In 1917, Struthiomimus altus, the type species, was named. The Latin genus name altus translates to “lofty” or “noble.” It colonised North America during the Cretaceous period and frequented the terrestrial regions of Canada notably from the Campanian Age until 66 million years ago. Although some partial remains were discovered in 1901, a virtually complete skeleton was discovered in 1917 at the Red Deer River site in Alberta, Canada. Several bones and skulls provide as evidence for the type species.

The bipedal feathered Struthiomimus measured roughly 14 feet long, 4.6 feet tall at the hips, and weighed about 330 pounds. The neck was long and lean, and it was also believed that the long neck terminated in a short, toothless, beaked cranium with huge eyes. It had long, powerful arms with powerful hand claws, and the hands were also employed as claws. The vertebral column contained 16 back vertebrae, 10 neck vertebrae, 6 hip vertebrae, and a few tail vertebrae. Their jaws lacked teeth, while their limbs made it easier to hold onto tree branches. The dinosaur’s large hind limbs allowed it to sprint, and its strong tail served as a balance aid. Its hands and arms were long and thin, with inflexible forearm bones and little opposability between the first and second fingers. Struthiomimus possessed thick forelimbs and an upper jaw that was concave. Struthiomimus was recognised for having long, powerful, and effective running hind limbs similar to an ostrich, and their speed was likely the major factor that allowed these dinosaurs to readily outpace their predators. The dinosaur could likely reach speeds of 30 to 50 mph.

Since they belonged to a terrestrial species, numerous theories contend that these dinosaurs were shore-dwellers. It was a herbivore or omnivore that consumed insects, crabs, shrimp, and possibly the eggs of other dinosaurs. The dinosaur’s forelimbs were employed to grasp branches, while its neck was utilised for foraging.  As may be observed in the second and third fingers, fingers were likely joined as one unit by the skin. Most likely, the dinosaur utilised the hand as a clamp or hook. This provides more evidence that these dinosaurs were herbivores.

Struthiosaurus

Struthiosaurus

Baron Franz Nopsca(Life time: 1877–1933), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Armoured
Lived:Late Cretaceous 83 – 75 million years ago
Weight:300 – 400kg / 661 – 881Ibs
Length2.2m / 7.2ft
Diet:Herbivorous

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Struthiosaurus, which means “ostrich lizard” and is one of the tiniest and most primitive genera of nodosaurid herbivorous dinosaurs. It is pronounced, “strew-thee-oh-sore-us.” The Latin words “struthio,” which means “ostrich,” and “sauros,” which means “lizard,” are combined to form the name of this genus. The term was chosen by scientists due to the braincase’s avian-like shape. There are three known species of it: Struthiosaurus languedocensis, which was described in 2003, Struthiosaurus transylvanicus, which was described in 1915, and the type species, Struthiosaurus austriacus, which was described in 1871. 

This genus of dinosaurs lived in Europe in the countries of France, Austria, Romania, and Hungary. From the Campanian Age through the Maastrichtian Age, it is known to have existed in the Late Cretaceous, and might have been an island-dwelling dwarf ankylosaur. Struthiosaurus dinosaurs were first discovered in 1859 when a dinosaur tooth was found on a stone pile at the Gute Hoffnung coal mine in Muthmannsdorf, Austria, not far from Wiener Neustadt. The type species was found in Austria’s coal mines, which are located in Europe, and both the Struthiosaurus transylvanicus and the Struthiosaurus languedocensis were characterised using fragmentary skeletons and skulls that were discovered during excavations in Romania and France, respectively. 

The Struthiosaurus was a relatively small dinosaur, according to analysis. Due to the limited food supply on an island, it is likely that it is small. The Struthiosaurus weighed between 300 and 400 kilograms and measured between 2.2 and 2.5 meters long. It was a four-legged dinosaur that was the smallest nodosaurian dinosaur known to exist. Its body was covered by armor so that it could fight against predators. Insular dwarfism evolved from a herbivorous dinosaur that would have been far less likely to exhaust its restricted food supplies. With short limbs and a top speed of 6.2 mph, it was slow-moving. Due to the fact that they did not prey on other animals, these animals were presumably not hostile. The Strutiosaurus was a plant-eating ankylosaur that predominantly consumed low-growing plants like ferns while grazing on the first levels of buildings. 

Styracosaurus

Styracosaurus

Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com), CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Ceratopsian
Lived:Late Cretaceous 75.5 – 75 million years ago
Weight:2,700kg
Length5.5m / 18ft
Diet:Herbivorous

Styracosaurus (sty-RACK-oh-SAWR-us) was a genus of ceratopsian dinosaur who lived in the Campanian stage during the Cretaceous Period, around 76 to 75 million years ago. Styracosaurus lived in Alberta, Arizona, Montana, North America.

Styracosaurus measured 18 feet (5.5 metres) in length, 6 feet (1.8 metres) in height and weighed around 3 tons. It had 6 horns extending from a neck frill and a smaller horn above each of its eyes. Their skull was massive, with a large nostril and a tall straight nose horn. Each of the 4 longest frill spines was comparable in length to the nose horn, at 50 to 55 centimetres long.

Styracosaurus was quadrupedal and had 4 short, thick legs, a thick, pointed tail and a powerful body and shoulders. Like most ceratopsids, Styracosaurus had large fenestrae (skull openings) in its frill. The front of the mouth had a toothless beak.

 

Suchomimus

suchomimus

Nkansahrexford, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Large theropod
Lived:Early Cretaceous 125 – 112 million years ago
Weight:2,500 – 5,200kg
Length9.5 – 11m / 31 – 36ft
Diet:Carnivorous

Suchomimus (sook-oh-mim-us), whose name translates to “crocodile mimic,” is a genus of predatory spinosaurid dinosaurs. The generic name is a combination of mimos, which means “to imitate,” and souchos, which is the Ancient Greek word for the Egyptian crocodile god Sobek. The type species Suchomimus tenerensis was named and described by scientists in 1998, and the specific name alludes to the locality of its first remains, the Ténéré Desert. During the Early Cretaceous era, 125–112 million years ago, Suchomimus lived, and inhabited the terrestrial habitat of North Africa.

A large theropod dinosaur skeleton made up roughly two-thirds of the fossils that an American palaeontologist found in 1997 at Gadoufaoua, Niger. A massive thumb claw was discovered as the initial find, and the Tegama Beds of the Elrhaz Formation are where the holotype was discovered. It comprises of a partly skullless skeleton, and along with other skeletal remains, it has three neck ribs, remnants of fourteen dorsal (back) vertebrae, 10 dorsal ribs, gastralia, a partial forelimb, most of the pelvis, and pieces of a hindlimb. The bones that made up the remaining portion of the spinal column were disarticulated. The skeleton had sustained erosion damage where it had been exposed to the desert floor, and several specimens have also been designated as paratypes.

Its length and height were 9.4–11 m and 3.6 m, respectively and weighed between 2500-5200 kg. Suchomimus had a fairly sizable skull with a possible length of 1.2 metres. The nose of the skull was extremely short and appeared long. Although it appeared tiny, the jaw was actually rather robust, and the teeth in each jaw were pointed and serrated. It has three-fingered forelimbs made of muscle. It’s interesting to note that this dinosaur had a large thumb with a sickle-shaped claw on each of its forelimbs. Of the three claws on the finger, this one was the biggest. The sail that ran around this dinosaur’s back is without a doubt its most distinctive feature, and the spinosaurid’s vertebrae make up the sail’s neural spines. The sail was reported to have been fairly vividly coloured, and the long, strong tail was where the sail came to an end. The sail may have been used to communicate between individuals as a part of courtship displays, according to one theory. It possessed sturdy limbs that were equipped with pointed claws, with the thumb’s large claw, however, helped it with its inborn hunting instincts. Suchomimus wasn’t a super quick dinosaur, its estimated speed was about 23.5 mph.

This carnivorous dinosaur most likely lived in a semi-aquatic environment. This dinosaur was able to survive thanks to the tropical environment, rivers, and forests that were present in Africa at the time. Its nutrition has been contrasted with that of modern crocodiles and Fish made up a large amount of its meals. It was capable of capturing and tearing huge fish with its razor-sharp sickle-shaped thumb claw. It consumed both fish and other creatures, and it had an advantage over its victims when hunting due to its muscular limbs and sharp fangs. This spinosaurid dinosaur is thought to have perished during the Early Cretaceous itself.

Supersaurus

Supersaurus

LadyofHats, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Type:Sauropod
Lived:Jurassic Period 155 – 145 million years ago
Weight:55,000kg
Length40m / 131ft
Diet:Herbivorous

Supersaurus (super-SAW-rus) was a sauropod dinosaur that lived in the Kimmeridgian – Tithonian stages during the Jurassic period, around 155 – 145 million years ago, in Colorado. USA. Supersaurus is very closely related to Apatosaurus. Jurassic was a time of huge sauropods including Diplodocus, Camarasaurus, Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus. Also around at that time was Stegosaurus and the fierce carnivore, Allosaurus.

Supersaurus measured 131 feet (40 metres) in length, 54 feet (16.5 metres) in height and weighed 55 tons. It had a very long neck that measured 39 feet (12 metres) long and a small head. It may have had very limited vertical neck mobility. Supersaurus held its neck more or less parallel to the ground. Its long neck would have been useful for foraging in trees in forests where it would not otherwise be able to venture because of its great size.

Supersaurus was a herbivore and would have used its spoon-like teeth to strip foliage and grind up prehistoric plant material such as conifers, gingkos, cycads and ferns. It would have eaten a huge amount of vegetation to sustain its huge size and may have swallowed gastroliths (stomach stones) to help with the digestion of tough plant material.

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Last Updated on 15/07/2022 by admin